Thứ Hai, ngày 29 tháng 9 năm 2008

Quotable quote - teamwork

"The achievements of an organization are the results of the combined effort of each individual." (“Thành tựu của một tổ chức là tổng hòa các nỗ lực chung của mỗi cá nhân trong tổ chức.”) Vince Lombardi

Chủ Nhật, ngày 28 tháng 9 năm 2008

Spelling 'team' with an 'I'

Spelling 'team' with an 'I'

http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123072947

In the words of motivational speaker and author Stephen Covey, "Synergy is the highest activity of life; it creates new untapped alternatives; it values and exploits the mental, emotional and psychological differences between people."

"Cộng hưởng là hoạt động cao nhất của cuộc sống; nó tạo ra những lựa chọn bất ngờ; nó trân trọng và tận dụng những khác biệt về trí tuệ, tình cảm và tâm lý của mỗi cá nhân."

-----
Commentary by Lt. Col. Brian Polser
386th Air Expeditionary Wing ops center director

10/23/2007 - SOUTHWEST ASIA (AFPN) -- We've all heard many quotable quotes about teamwork throughout our lives.

I'm sure you're familiar with, "None of us is as smart, or as strong, as all of us," or the catchy acronym, "TEAM = Together Everyone Achieves More." My personal favorite has always been "You don't spell 'team' with an i."

Leaders often use these phrases to motivate their folks to work together instead of as individuals. I recently read a quote that made me rethink my favorite teamwork quote.

The legendary football coach Vince Lombardi once said, "The achievements of an organization are the results of the combined effort of each individual." The key word here is individual. Contrary to popular belief, individuals are important to a team's success. At first glance this may seem counterintuitive to the idea of teamwork, but allow me to explain.

First, we must understand what teamwork is.

According to famous industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, "Teamwork is the ability to work together toward a common vision. The ability to direct individual accomplishments toward organizational objectives. It is the fuel that allows common people to attain uncommon results."

Here the individual is important because it is the combination of individual efforts that enable a team's success. At any deployed location, the combination of individual efforts from aircrews, maintainers and support Airmen the unit to put "boots on the ground."

Second, we must appreciate why teamwork is important.

In the words of motivational speaker and author Stephen Covey, "Synergy is the highest activity of life; it creates new untapped alternatives; it values and exploits the mental, emotional and psychological differences between people." These differences between individuals -- the unique talents and points of view that each individual brings to the fight -- create synergy in teams.

As the wing operations center director, I see this synergy in action every day. The dedicated individuals in the command post, maintenance operations center, air terminal operations center, and the rated officer we call "Maestro" join together to provide outstanding command and control for executing the wing's mission.

OK, so individual talents and accomplishments are key to team synergy and success. The obvious question is, if individuals are so important, how do we motivate them to work together as a team?

Leaders, your focus should be on fostering a command climate that encourages teamwork but recognizes outstanding individual effort. In the words of the great Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Trust men and they will be true to you; treat them greatly and they will show themselves great."

The most important factor, however, is the individual. Make no mistake, I am not talking about individuals who are striving for personal glory. I'm talking about individuals dedicating their talents and hard work to mission success.

I'll close with a final teamwork quote, another from Vince Lombardi, that summarizes my point about the importance of the individual in teamwork. He preached, "Individual commitment to a group effort -- that is what makes a team work, a company work, a society work, a civilization work."

On the word 'Synergy'

Khẩu hiệu của ĐHQG-HCM trong 3 năm tới là Sức mạnh hệ thống. Là người được xem là giỏi tiếng Anh trong ĐHQG-HCM (nhất ĐHQG-HCM?;-)), tôi đã đề xuất nhiều cách cách dịch cụm từ nói trên sang tiếng Anh, như sau:

1. ĐHQG-HCM: sức mạnh hệ thống --> VNU-HCM: the synergized power of a system (sức mạnh cộng hưởng của một hệ thống)
2. ĐHQG-HCM: sức mạnh hệ thống --> VNU-HCM: synergizing the power of the system (phát huy sức mạnh của một hệ thống)
hoặc thậm chí:
3. ĐHQG-HCM: sức mạnh hệ thống --> VNU-HCM: synergized power (sức mạnh cộng hưởng)

cả 3 cách dịch nói trên đều chưa đạt về sự ngắn gọn, dễ hiểu, và ... hay về âm hưởng. Và tự nhiên, hôm qua tôi xuất thần (!) nghĩ ra được khẩu hiệu

4. ĐHQG-HCM: sức mạnh hệ thống --> VNU-HCM: the power of synergy (sức mạnh của sự cộng hưởng)

và không hiểu mọi người nghĩ sao, chứ tôi thấy cụm từ này ... rất hay! vì từ synergy là một từ rất nhiều tầng nghĩa, cả nghĩa kỹ thuật, lẫn nghĩa quy luật tự nhiên, và nghĩa tinh thần --> đủ cả tự nhiên, xã hội nhân văn, và công nghệ trong một từ này!

cao hứng quá, nên viết một entry trên blog để ghi lại cảm giác này. để tự mình lâu lâu nhìn lại, and give myself a pat on the back! :-)

Cảm nhận sau khi blog cũ bị hacked

Như thế là blog cũ của mình đã bị hacked 3 ngày nay, và mình vẫn không sao quen được điều này! Cái cảm giác khó chịu, bị lừa vẫn cứ đeo đẳng - ừ, tại sao chứ, khi trang blog đó vẫn còn đó, vẫn tồn tại physically, và có lẽ vẫn accessible với một số người - well ít ra là với kẻ mạo danh đã lấy trộm password của mình và bây giờ đang sở hữu yahoo account và trang blog đó ... Một cảm giác vô cùng khó chịu!!!!! Bực bội, phẫn nộ, xen lẫn thất vọng, và cả trống rỗng, và thỉnh thoảng mơ hồ chờ đợi một sự trở lại kỳ diệu nào đó của sự sở hữu của mình với trang blog đó ...


Chỉ có một điều rất rõ ràng, đó là ... hình như mình không thể sống mà không có blog! dù trang blog cũ mình cũng rất ít khi viết, và số người ra vào trang blog đó cũng chẳng có mấy (dường như chỉ trên 5000 lượt trong suốt trên 2 năm trời!) Thôi thì tạo lại một trang blog khác, để tự mình chia sẻ với mình vậy. để có chỗ mà ghi lại những gì muốn ghi, lưu lại các địa chỉ web, các bài viết hay ... và đó là lý do trang blog mới này (bloganhvu.blogspot.com) ra đời (và hy vọng sẽ sống sót lâu hơn trang cũ?)

Nhưng có lẽ cái cảm giác mình đang có về trang blog này cũng giống như cảm giác một cô gái lấy chồng nhưng không phải (chưa phải?) là người mình yêu? hy vọng tình yêu sẽ phát triển với người chồng mới vậy - vì làm sao được, khi người yêu của mình đã bỏ mình mà đi???

Vài giòng lẩn thẩn vào một buổi sáng chủ nhật sau khi mất ... blog!

Chủ Nhật, ngày 21 tháng 9 năm 2008

Doctoral dilemma

Doctoral dilemma

http://www.thanhniennews.com/features/?catid=10&newsid=41815


Vietnam aims to produce 20,000 doctorates in 2020, but lack of research support and exchange opportunities encumber the nation’s brightest minds.

When Vietnam released its seventh draft outlining the national strategies to develop the country’s education from the period of 2008-2020 at an August conference in Hanoi, some experts said the plan was simply a wishful laundry list.

Among the 11 solution packages to boost the education system in the next decade, two goals aimed to make Vietnam’s higher education more internationally competitive: to produce 20,000 doctorates and have at least 30 percent of university faculty members as Ph.D. graduates in 2020.

The two goals have been fiercely debated for years among the nation’s leading scholars, professors, students and businesspeople – both through online discussions and print publications – as to whether these figure-based goals would solve the country’s shortage of skilled workers.

“I think it shouldn’t be a problem for the nation’s leading universities to achieve this number, but the goal may not be feasible for universities that have been just recently established,” said Nguyen Kim Hong, deputy principal of Ho Chi Minh University of Education, in a recent interview with Thanh Nien Daily.

Hong, who is in charge of the university’s scientific research activities and higher education, said currently 24.2 percent of the university’s faculty members are Ph.D. graduates. However, he stressed that the focus on improving education shouldn’t be about one simple number.

Deputy Minister of Education and Training (MoET) Banh Tien Long said recently at a conference held in Ho Chi Minh City that the plan to produce 20,000 doctorates by 2020 is being finalized prior to being submitted for the government’s approval.
According to the plan, about half of the candidates would be trained in foreign universities, with between 800 to 1,000 sent abroad annually and 10 percent of those to American universities.

During the academic year 2006-2007, MoET estimates the number of university faculty members who hold master’s degrees or doctorates only increased by 11.9 percent among the 3,500 newly-hired teaching staff.

According to Hong, by 2020 with Vietnam having at least 4.5 million college students and 250,000 university teaching staff, the country must produce around 60,000 doctorates to achieve the 30 percent target, given that there are currently 16,000 Ph.D. instructors.

“We have to take into account the faculty members who may retire during the next 12 years,” Hong explained.
“But that’s still a huge number.”

Urgent matter
Ho Tan Nhat, assistant professor of mechanical engineering at California State University-Northridge, said it’s crucial for Vietnam to increase the number of people who achieve doctorate degrees.

“It would enable us to produce a ‘critical mass’ and a viable force to buttress this country’s scientific research,” said Nhat, who received both of his master’s and doctorate degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Nhat was recently in Vietnam to advise the Vietnam National University-HCMC (VNU-HCMC) on building a credit-based system for university courses – an initiative that would allow students more freedom in choosing their curricula.

Dau Hong Ngoc, a former Vietnam Education Foundation fellow, said the country’s education officials must pinpoint the real purpose for producing master’s or doctorate degree holders.

“In the states, the majority who decide to pursue higher degrees aim to conduct research,” said Ngoc, who received a master’s degree in civil engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
“The requirement of research isn’t so prioritized for master’s or doctoral candidates in Vietnamese universities.”

A World Bank report released in 2006 showed that the number of scientific publications produced by Vietnam National University numbered only 34, a tiny number when compared to the 3,600 publications of the National University of Singapore.

Speaking at a recent seminar in HCMC on how to conduct research and get published in international journals, Tung Bui, director of the doctoral program in International Management from the University of Hawaii, said research papers originating from Vietnamese universities are often rejected due to the authors’ poor English and analysis of topics that are not new in the scientific world.

Tung emphasized that Vietnamese researchers have few opportunities to attend international seminars abroad and thus lack the latest information that may lead to new scientific discoveries.

“They often stay inside the country, read topics already published and then start to do research,” he said.
“By the time the research is completed, the topic is already four or five years dated.”

Hoang Dung, head of VNUHCMC’s Department of Science and Technology, said the university realizes the importance of assisting those in the master’s and doctoral programs to get their research papers published.

According to Dung, the university has established a fund to support the school’s faculty members and students in conducting scientific research and attending international seminars.

Reported by Huong Le - Van Khoa

A different way to think about ... student assessment

A different way to think about ... student assessment

Lee S. Shulman

Source:


This is surely the age of accountability, both in higher education and in K-12. As the stakes associated with test performance rise, both for the students and for their institutions, the dilemmas of coaching for test performance have risen as well. Many of the newer forms of assessment make the distinctions between teaching and assessment less and less clear.

When the test takes the form of a dissertation, a portfolio or an architectural design, can we tell how much was done by the coach and how much by the candidate? What if one's peers have collaborated in producing the artifact, whether as co-designers or as editors or critics? And if we insist on tests that reduce dramatically the role of mentors or coaches, might we also be using tests that are more highly artificial and unrepresentative?

Here are some ruminations about the dilemmas of coaching in the contexts of high-stakes testing. They are drawn from an essay titled "Send me in, Coach!" that I've written for the September 2008 issue of The New Educator, a journal published by the City University of New York.

Lee S. Shulman
May 2008


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When Coaching and Testing Collide


It's a scene we have watched dozens of times in the movies. A young man or woman of modest talent tries out for the baseball or football or basketball team under the tutelage of a gruff, demanding coach who expresses initial doubts about the likelihood that the kid will prove himself or herself worthy of a spot on the team. The coach is tough and persistent, setting high standards and then mercilessly driving all his charges to meet them. In the climactic scene at the season's end, the good guys or gals are losing by several baskets, or runs, or a touchdown—depending on the sport. "Send me in, coach," pleads our young hero/ine, which coach reluctantly does. The kid scores the winning points, and the team wins. The coach turns out to have a heart of gold, and the reasons for his seeming cruelty become apparent.

What exactly is it that the coach provides the aspirant? Let me propose five processes associated with both the coach and mentor roles: 1) technique, learned through endless drill; 2) strategy, that allows the person who is coached to become capable of a conception of the work that will turn out to be pivotal in their eventual victory; 3) motivation, which produces a "Rocky-like" level of commitment that will help them exceed their own and others' expectations; 4) vision, where players come together in a new vision of the process and their capabilities for success; and 5) identity, whereby the protagonist not only wins, but is transformed, with an internalized new sense of self.

In sports there is always a clear line between the coaching situation and the performance context. When the final jump shot is made from the three-point line by the basketball player, the coach can't jump onto the court and give the ball the extra momentum or spin it might need. I prefer to call such typical relationships between a coach/mentor and player/protégé examples of unmediated mentoring. No separate product comes in the middle between the coaching and the performing that renders the relative contributions of the coach and the coached inherently ambiguous because the entire performance is visible and is itself the basis for evaluating success or failure.



There is, however, an entire genre of mediated mentoring. The performance is not directly observed and has yielded a product which is the focal point of competition and evaluation. Thus in the case of mediated performances, the respective roles of coach and performer are inherently invisible. Although the five processes are in place and just as transformative, there is inherently no way to discern how much of the work was done independently by the candidate, by peers or by advisors.



Whenever mentoring is mediated by a product whose actual authoring processes are not directly observable, as is the case with literature, objects of architectural or mechanical design, scholarly publications, doctoral dissertations, and even paintings, assessment of individual competence is problematic. But are these problems of educational measurement or a new set of realities regarding the conditions of expert performance? Stanford education professor Sam Wineburg and others point out that the crux of the problem may not be measurement error but rather the inherently social and interactive character of the performances whose competence is assessed. Writing is and should be critiqued and edited, as should painting, the designs for buildings and the research performed in scientific laboratories. To avoid mentoring merely to ensure the legitimacy of individual test scores might even be judged a form of malpractice! So we are faced with an essential tension between the inherently social character of most forms of complex human performance and the psychometric imperative to estimate a "true score" for ability or any other personal trait using the individual as the unit of analysis.

In an education setting, the distinction between the scores that a student earns on any test-like event—multiple choice test, essay exam, portfolio or senior sermon in a seminary—and their underlying "true" capability is a reflection of the distinction, borrowed perhaps from the field of linguistics, between competence and performance. Psychometrics rests on the claim that the observed performance is a valid indicator if it tracks the underlying competence faithfully. But what if mentored or coached performances actually track underlying competence more validly than measurement of students working alone? What if the composition written by a student in the presence of his editing team is a better indicator of his future writing competence than having him write alone?



That is what sits at the heart of the puzzle.



My proposal for "getting over" this essential tension is three-fold: making changes in the processes of assessment, making explicit the parameters of mentoring, and developing a clear code of ethical principles for both assessment and mentoring. At the heart of these proposals is the principle of transparency. Everything possible must be done to ensure that the roles of mentors, peers and students be transparently clear in any mediated mentoring activity. There should be ways of reporting on the character of coaching for test performance that make the efforts of the coach entirely transparent to assessment.



I have often written that collaboration is a marriage of insufficiencies; that students can work together in ways that scaffold and support each others' learning, and in ways that support each others' knowledge. Now I call for a marriage of sufficiencies to overcome the essential tensions between individual work and collaborative performance, coaching support and independent assessment, the mentor as an agent of zealous advocacy and the mentor as a steward of the commons.



As Dewey observed, we will not solve this problem, we will get over it. It is built in to the psychometric paradox: Our measurement models are psychometric but our assessment needs are often sociometric, requiring the measurement of socially scaffolded and joint productions.

Chủ Nhật, ngày 14 tháng 9 năm 2008

What Is Project Management?

What Is Project Management?
http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/infokits/project-management/index_html

There are many definitions of what constitutes a project such as 'a unique set of co-ordinated activities, with definite starting and finishing points, undertaken by an individual or team to meet specific objectives within defined time, cost and performance parameters' (Office of Government Commerce).

We are all aware that our organisations undertake projects and, rather than debate the merits of different definitions, it is perhaps more helpful to look at a few of the characteristics that make projects different from other work. Projects are usually characterised by being:

Instruments of change

Non-routine

Unique

Composed of inter-dependent activities

Carried out by people who don't normally work together

Temporary with defined start and end dates

Intended to achieve a specific outcome

Frequently risky and involving uncertainties

Many of you may already be 'accidental project managers' who carry out many of the activities outlined here but view it as simply 'getting things done' whilst recognising that you also rely heavily on luck, perseverance and strength of will. What we are offering is a structured approach and a set of tools that help you to 'get things done better'.

Mullaly, M.E. 'The Accidental Project Manager: Coming in from the Cold', 2003
There is no magic formula for ensuring that a project is successful, but there are well proven techniques available to help plan and manage projects. No one need feel daunted at taking on their first project - project management is not a 'black art', nor does it need to be a minefield of jargon and bureaucracy. Most of project management is plain, common sense and a lot of what we describe is simply a structured approach to what you would do instinctively. Project management gives you a framework - at certain points it prompts you to take a step back and think 'have I done this?', 'have I considered that?', 'do I understand this fully?', 'what will we do should "x" happen?', 'how should I deal with this?'

There are many formal project management methodologies that combine a framework or approach with a set of project tools and guidelines. Some are 'proprietary' approaches developed by consulting firms and software houses whilst others are in the public domain. They vary in scale and complexity but all are based around a small core of common sense principles.

A methodology that is commonly used in the public sector and forms the basis of this infoKit is PRINCE2 (PRojects IN Controlled Environments). PRINCE2 is a very comprehensive methodology that can be applied to projects no matter how large and complex. The JISC infoNet method pares down PRINCE2 to the bare bones of a framework suitable for managing any project. We have tried to ensure that the method is scalable and hence we highlight areas where you may go into greater or lesser amounts of detail. The important thing is to make the methodology work for you. Properly applied it should be a user-friendly framework that matches the size, risk level and complexity of your project.

PRINCE2 (PRojects IN Controlled Environments) is the methodology approved by government for public sector projects and was originally designed to aid the development and implementation of information systems, a useful overview is available below. PRINCE2 is such a well established and common methodology that we show the links between the JISC infoNet methodology and the relevant PRINCE2 process throughout this infoKit.

JISC infoNet PRINCE2 Overview [PDF; 163K]

OGC PRINCE2 website

Another key difference about the JISC infoNet approach is the emphasis on people and behaviour. One thing that stands out in the analysis of all projects, whether successful or otherwise, is that projects are about people. Few information systems projects fail for technical reasons. They fail because of people's perceptions of what to expect from technology or because of their belief that technology can somehow adapt to their way of doing things without the need for associated business process change. We aim to give due emphasis on the skills required to manage the people aspects and the organisational change that any project will inevitably bring about.

The diagram below shows the main components of the JISC infoNet project management methodology. Some elements, namely Project Start-up and Project Closure, occur only once. The remaining elements, Planning, Managing Phases and Controlling, form an iterative cycle that may repeat many times before the project is complete.



It must be stressed that the methodology is a framework and nothing more. It is a tried and tested, structured approach that will give you a sound basis for running a successful project. It is not, however, a substitute for creativity. Projects are always unique; they necessarily involve uncertainty and risk and they will require all your flexibility and ingenuity if they are to succeed. That's what's exciting about managing a project!

Accreditation of Universities in the USA

Accreditation of Universities in the USA
Copyright 2002-03 by Ronald B. Standler

Source: http://www.rbs2.com/accred.htm

Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. Regional Accrediting Organizations
3. Accrediting Organizations in Specific Subjects
4. Law
5. Minimum Requirements
Bachelor's degree
Master's degree
Doctoral degree
Library
Conclusion


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1. Introduction
The purpose of this essay is to explain accreditation to students in the USA, as well as to foreigners who are baffled at the complexity of accreditation in the USA. A secondary purpose is to explain the requirements for academic degrees in the USA.

This essay is intended only to present general information about an interesting topic in law and is not legal advice for your specific problem. See my disclaimer.

To simplify matters, in this essay I refer to colleges and/or universities as just universities.


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2. Regional Accrediting Organizations
There are six regional accrediting organizations for universities in the USA, each with a different territory. These regional accrediting organizations accredit all degrees, in all subject areas, in an entire university. (See below for organizations that accredit degrees in a single academic subject.) The alphabetical list of states in parentheses comprise the region for each organization.
Middle States (Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania)


New England (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont)


North Central (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming)


Northwest (Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington state)


Southern (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia)


Western (California and Hawaii)

The Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) is a private organization that coordinates the regional accrediting organizations, as well as the accrediting organizations in specific academic subjects.

The federal government in the USA plays a negligible roll in accreditation, mostly in The Office of Postsecondary Education of the U.S. Department of Education.


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3. Accrediting Organizations in Specific Subjects
There are also accrediting organizations for academic degrees in some specific subject areas. For example:
Chemistry
The American Chemical Society, Committee on Professional Training (ACS)


Computer Science
The Accreditation Board for Engineering & Technology, Computing Accreditation Commission (ABET-CAC). The Computing Sciences Accreditation Board (CSAB) participates in ABET. The CSAB includes representatives of the Association for Computing Machinery, the Computer Society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, and the Association for Information Systems.


Engineering & Technology
The Accreditation Board for Engineering & Technology (ABET) has representatives from all of the major engineering professional societies in the USA, including the Association of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), and the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE), amongst many others.

Degrees in engineering technology are often confused with degrees in engineering. The distinction between engineering and technology is:
Engineering students take more classes in mathematics and higher-level classes in physics and chemistry, than technology students. Technology students tend to have more "practical" classes, as in vocational education.
Consequently, graduates of engineering programs are better qualified to do research and development, such as design novel products. Graduates of technology programs (e.g., a bachelor of science in electrical engineering technology) are generally employed to build prototype products, supervise manufacturing production work, do routine laboratory work, and repair sophisticated electronic equipment.
Technology programs are not offered by most universities in the USA, so many students who choose to study engineering would be better suited for a technology program.


Law
The American Bar Association (ABA) section on legal education and The Association of American Law Schools (AALS) both evaluate law schools.


Medicine
The Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) is a joint project of
The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and
the American Medical Association, Council on Medical Education (AMA-CME)


Meteorology / Atmospheric Science
The American Meteorological Society (AMS) has issued a policy statement that describes the minimum curriculum and faculty for a bachelor's degree in meteorology. The AMS also certifies individual people as competent in meteorology.

Note that some of these standards are set by a nonprofit professional society that is concerned with the subject matter (e.g., ACS, ABA, IEEE). Other standards are set by associations of medical schools or law schools.

There are many other examples of accreditation for a specific department, I list some of the above examples only because I am familiar with them from my background in science and engineering. Further, the examples in law and medicine are important because state governments require that a person who is licensed to practice law or medicine must have graduated from an accredited school, amongst other requirements.

The U.S. Department of Education has a list of nationally recognized accrediting agencies by subject area, which includes many other accrediting organizations. In case that link does not work, try the U.S. Department of Education homepage for accreditation.


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4. Law
The accrediting organizations are all nonprofit corporations. Courts generally defer to any decision made by an accrediting organization, provided that:
the organization followed its own rules.
the act was in good faith.
there exists a formal, internal procedure for protests of an impending act that adversely affects a party.

This legal principle was established in England in the case Dawkins v. Antrobus, 17 Ch. D. 615 (1881). There are several scholarly articles that explain the law in more detail:
Zechariah Chafee, "The Internal Affairs of Associations Not for Profit", 43 Harvard Law Review 993 (1930).


William A. Kaplin and J. Philip Hunter, Comment, "The Legal Status of the Educational Accrediting Agency: Problems in Judicial Supervision and Governmental Regulation," 52 Cornell Law Quarterly 104 (1966).


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Minimum Requirements
Definitions
Before one can understand the requirements for academic degrees, one first must understand some terms about academic credit for a class:
semester
A semester is an academic term with a duration of 15 weeks. Typically in the USA, a university has two semesters per year: one begins in August and the other begins in January. (There is a third semester during the summer, but most students have jobs during the summer, instead of attending classes then.)


semester hour
A so-called "one-hour" lecture class has a duration of 50 minutes. A lecture class that meets for a total of 3×50 minutes each week for one semester is worth "3 semester hours" of credit. A lecture class that meets for a total of 5×50 minutes each week for one semester is worth "5 semester hours" of credit.


quarter
A quarter is an academic term with a duration of 10 weeks. A typical student attends classes for three quarters during the year. (There is a fourth quarter during the summer, but most students have jobs during the summer.) Some universities in the USA have quarters, instead of semesters.


quarter hour
A class that is worth 3 quarter hours of credit is equivalent to a class that is worth 2 semester hours of credit, because a quarter has fewer weeks of classes than a semester.


Bachelor's Degree
Minimum academic requirements for a bachelor's degree from an accredited university in the USA in the year 1970 include:
A total of at least 120 semester hours of credit must be earned in classes at accredited universities. It typically takes a student four years of full-time study (not including summers) to earn a bachelor's degree.

Each of these classes has written examinations, term papers or weekly homework, and other assignments that must be completed by every student. Students were required to attend every class meeting, unless they had a good reason for their absence.

There are numerous restrictions on which classes may be counted for a degree, for example:
specific classes in one's major subject may be required, according to the decision of the faculty in each department
specific classes in general education (e.g., writing, speech, mathematics, science) may be required
a selection of classes outside one's major subject is required, to give breadth to one's education: by exposing students to science, mathematics, history, philosophy, psychology, economics, music, etc.
at least 50 semester hours of credit must be earned in classes suitable for third- or fourth-year students majoring in those subjects
either take a two-semester foreign language class (e.g., total of 10 semester hours) or pass a competency exam in a foreign language.
These rules supposedly prevent students from graduating by either taking only easy classes, or taking classes in a narrow range of subjects.


At least the final year of study (i.e., at least 30 semester hours) must be conducted on the campus of university that issues the degree, a so-called "residency requirement". This requirement ensures that the university that issues a diploma will have some first-hand experience with the student, instead of relying on credit for courses taken at another university. Many colleges required at least the final four semesters (i.e., two years) of study be conducted on campus.


Master's Degree
Minimum academic requirements for a master's degree (e.g., M.Sc.) from an accredited university in the USA in the year 1970 include:
A total of at least 30 semester hours of credit beyond the bachelor's degree must be earned in classes at accredited universities. At least 24 semester hours was in classes, of which at least half must be at the graduate level.


Traditionally, a candidate for a master's degree was required to complete a master's thesis, which was an original scholarly work. The candidate was required to defend the thesis before a meeting of the candidate's advisory committee, which other professors were welcome to attend. The student was given 6 semester hours of credit for a successful thesis.

Beginning in the late 1960s, universities in the USA began to devalue the master's degree by allowing students to take an extra six semester hours of classes instead of doing a master's thesis.

A Master's degree typically required one year of full-time study or two years of study while also doing teaching or research on campus (i.e., a half-time teaching or research assistant).


Doctoral Degree
The requirements for a doctoral degree (e.g., Ph.D.) from an accredited university in the USA have a great deal of variation from one subject area to another, and from one university to another. The one common feature everywhere is that the doctoral degree is the highest academic degree offered by universities in the USA.

The minimum academic requirements for a doctoral degree in the year 1970 include:
A total of at least 50 semester hours of credit beyond the bachelor's degree must be earned in classes at accredited universities. Most of these classes will be in the student's major subject and most of these classes will be at the graduate level. Classes that were taken for a Master's degree can also be used to satisfy part of the requirements for a doctoral degree. (The student was given at least 12 semester hours of credit for a successful doctoral dissertation. Variation in the amount of credit given for a dissertation causes most of the variation in the total number of semester hours required for a doctoral degree.)


The most important part of a doctoral degree is the completion of a doctoral dissertation, which is a significant, original scholarly work that is suitable for publication in professional journal(s).


There is a sequence of three examinations:
A written examination, typically about six hours in length covering the undergraduate syllabus. A student typically is given two chances to pass this examination, a failure on the second time expels the student from the graduate program.
A written proposal of a dissertation topic and research methods, followed by a oral examination by the candidate's advisory committee, which other professors are also welcome to attend.
And, most significantly, the candidate is required to defend his/her dissertation before a meeting of the candidate's advisory committee, which other professors are also welcome to attend.

A doctoral degree typically required between four and six years of full-time study and research beyond a bachelor's degree. Most universities required the candidate for a doctoral degree to spend at least three years on campus, taking classes and doing research.


Library
Every accredited university must have an adequate library, to support scholarly research by both students and faculty. Most major universities have a total of more than 5 × 105 volumes of scholarly books and periodicals in the several libraries on their campus.


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Conclusion
The state and federal governments in the USA spend billions of dollars every year to support universities in the USA. Surprisingly, there are no government standards for the quality of education at universities in the USA. Instead, minimum standards for education in universities are set by private, nonprofit corporations, called accrediting organizations.

My impression is that accreditation in the USA is:
mostly a bureaucracy. Evaluations of a department involve preparing a thick stack of paper about each class (documenting the objectives, content, requirements, and example examinations of every class), as well as including the c.v. of each professor. Of course, what really matters is the knowledge of students who pass each class, but accrediting organizations seem to accept the polite assumptions that a professor would never:
teach only part of the written course syllabus, to make the class easier for the students.
give generous partial credit when grading examinations, so that students who are incompetent make a score higher than 70% and pass the class.
tell the students what will be on the examination, so the students can prepare to take the examination, a practice known as "teaching the test". Of course, nearly all of the students make high scores on such an examination, but the scores are meaningless as a measure of the students' competence.
avoid using online tools to detect plagiarization, despite evidence that at least 1/4 of term papers in universities in the USA contain plagiarized material.
privately reprimand students who plagiarize their term papers, instead of giving them a failing grade in the class and reporting them for investigation and disciplinary action.
full of buzzwords about quality and integrity of degrees.
weak (or silent) on substantial requirements that would make a bachelor's degree a significant intellectual achievement.

Despite the fact that accrediting standards in the USA are weaker than I would prefer, I have no doubt that degrees from an accredited university have more integrity than degrees from a nonaccredited university.


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this document is at http://www.rbs2.com/accred.htm
version 21 April 2003

Thứ Sáu, ngày 05 tháng 9 năm 2008

Free Basic Guide to Leadership

=== INTRO TO MANAGEMENT AND SUPERVISION ===

What is "Management"? What Do Managers Do?
What is "Management"?
Traditional Interpretation
There are a variety of views about this term. Traditionally, the term "management" refers to the set of activities, and often the group of people, involved in four general functions, including planning, organizing, leading and coordinating activities. (Note that the four functions recur throughout the organization and are highly integrated.)


Another Interpretation
Some writers, teachers and practitioners assert that the above view is rather outmoded and that management needs to focus more on leadership skills, e.g., establishing vision and goals, communicating the vision and goals, and guiding others to accomplish them. They also assert that leadership must be more facilitative, participative and empowering in how visions and goals are established and carried out. Some people assert that this really isn't a change in the management functions, rather it's re-emphasizing certain aspects of management.


What Do Managers Do?
Both of the above interpretations acknowledge the major functions of planning, organizing, leading and coordinating activities -- they put different emphasis and suggest different natures of activities in the following four major functions. They still agree that what managers do is the following:

1. Planning
including identifying goals, objectives, methods, resources needed to carry out methods, responsibilities and dates for completion of tasks. Examples of planning are strategic planning, business planning, project planning, staffing planning, advertising and promotions planning, etc.

2. Organizing resources
to achieve the goals in an optimum fashion. Examples are organizing new departments, human resources, office and file systems, re-organizing businesses, etc.

3. Leading
Including to set direction for the organization, groups and individuals and also influence people to follow that direction. Examples are establishing strategic direction (vision, values, mission and / or goals) and championing methods of organizational performance management to pursue that direction.

4. Controlling, or Coordinating
This occurs with the organization's systems, processes and structures to effectively and efficiently reach goals and objectives. This includes ongoing collection of feedback, and monitoring and adjustment of systems, processes and structures accordingly. Examples include use of financial controls, policies and procedures, performance management processes, measures to avoid risks etc.

Another common view is that "management" is getting things done through others. Yet another view, quite apart from the traditional view, asserts that the job of management is to support employee's efforts to be fully productive members of the organizations and citizens of the community.

To most employees, the term "management" probably means the group of people (executives and other managers) who are primarily responsible for making decisions in the organization. In a nonprofit, the term "management" might refer to all or any of the activities of the board, executive director and/or program directors.

For additional and advanced information, see Management (Introduction)at http://www.managementhelp.org/mng_thry/mng_thry.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Planning (many kinds) at http://www.managementhelp.org/plan_dec/plan_dec.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Leadership at http://www.managementhelp.org/ldrship/ldrship.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Coordinating Activities at http://www.managementhelp.org/cntrllng/cntrllng.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Management Developmentat http://www.managementhelp.org/mgmt_dev/mgmt_dev.htm


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What is "Supervision"? What Do Supervisors Do?
What is "Supervision"?
There are several interpretations of the term "supervision", but typically supervision is the activity carried out by supervisors to oversee the productivity and progress of employees who report directly to the supervisors. For example, first-level supervisors supervise entry-level employees. Depending on the size of the organization, middle-managers supervise first-level supervisors, chief executives supervise middle-managers, etc. Supervision is a management activity and supervisors have a management role in the organization.


What Do Supervisors Do?
Supervision of a group of employees often includes
1. Conducting basic management skills (decision making, problem solving, planning, delegation and meeting management)
2. Organizing their department and teams
3. Noticing the need for and designing new job roles in the group
4. Hiring new employees
5. Training new employees
6. Employee performance management (setting goals, observing and giving feedback, addressing performance issues, firing employees, etc.)
7. Conforming to personnel policies and other internal regulations

For additional and advanced information, see Basic Overview of Supervision at http://www.managementhelp.org/suprvise/suprvise.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Supervisory Developmentat http://www.managementhelp.org/supr_dev/supr_dev.htm


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=== CORE SKILLS IN MANAGEMENT & SUPERVISION ===


Problem Solving and Decision Making
Much of what managers and supervisors do is solve problems and make decisions. New managers and supervisors, in particular, often solve problems and decisions by reacting to them. They are "under the gun", stressed and very short for time. Consequently, when they encounter a new problem or decision they must make, they react with a decision that seemed to work before. It's easy with this approach to get stuck in a circle of solving the same problem over and over again. Therefore, as a new manager or supervisor, get used to an organized approach to problem solving and decision making. Not all problems can be solved and decisions made by the following, rather rational approach. However, the following basic guidelines will get you started. Don't be intimidated by the length of the list of guidelines. After you've practiced them a few times, they'll become second nature to you -- enough that you can deepen and enrich them to suit your own needs and nature.

(Note that it might be more your nature to view a "problem" as an "opportunity". Therefore, you might substitute "opportunity" for "problem" in the following guidelines.)

1. Define the problem
This is often where people struggle. They react to what they think the problem is. Instead, seek to understand more about why you think there's a problem.


Defining the problem: (with input from yourself and others)
Ask yourself and others, the following questions:
a. What can you see that causes you to think there's a problem?
b. Where is it happening?
c. How is it happening?
d. When is it happening?
e. With whom is it happening? (HINT: Don't jump to "Who is causing the problem?" When we're stressed, blaming is often one of our first reactions. To be an effective manager, you need to address issues more than people.)
f. Why is it happening?
g. Write down a five-sentence description of the problem in terms of "The following should be happening, but isn't ..." or "The following is happening and should be: ..." As much as possible, be specific in your description, including what is happening, where, how, with whom and why. (It may be helpful at this point to use a variety of research methods. See .


Defining complex problems:
a. If the problem still seems overwhelming, break it down by repeating steps a-f until you have descriptions of several related problems.


Verifying your understanding of the problems:
a. It helps a great deal to verify your problem analysis for conferring with a peer or someone else.


Prioritize the problems:
a. If you discover that you are looking at several related problems, then prioritize which ones you should address first.
b. Note the difference between "important" and "urgent" problems. Often, what we consider to be important problems to consider are really just urgent problems. Important problems deserve more attention. For example, if you're continually answering "urgent" phone calls, then you've probably got a more "important" problem and that's to design a system that screens and prioritizes your phone calls.


Understand your role in the problem:
a. Your role in the problem can greatly influence how you perceive the role of others. For example, if you're very stressed out, it'll probably look like others are, too, or, you may resort too quickly to blaming and reprimanding others. Or, you are feel very guilty about your role in the problem, you may ignore the accountabilities of others.


2. Look at potential causes for the problem
a. It's amazing how much you don't know about what you don't know. Therefore, in this phase, it's critical to get input from other people who notice the problem and who are effected by it.
b. It's often useful to collect input from other individuals one at a time (at least at first). Otherwise, people tend to be inhibited about offering their impressions of the real causes of problems.
c. Write down what your opinions and what you've heard from others.
d. Regarding what you think might be performance problems associated with an employee, it's often useful to seek advice from a peer or your supervisor in order to verify your impression of the problem.
e.Write down a description of the cause of the problem and in terms of what is happening, where, when, how, with whom and why.


3. Identify alternatives for approaches to resolve the problem
a. At this point, it's useful to keep others involved (unless you're facing a personal and/or employee performance problem). Brainstorm for solutions to the problem. Very simply put, brainstorming is collecting as many ideas as possible, then screening them to find the best idea. It's critical when collecting the ideas to not pass any judgment on the ideas -- just write them down as you hear them. (A wonderful set of skills used to identify the underlying cause of issues is Systems Thinking.)


4. Select an approach to resolve the problem
When selecting the best approach, consider:
a. Which approach is the most likely to solve the problem for the long term?
b. Which approach is the most realistic to accomplish for now? Do you have the resources? Are they affordable? Do you have enough time to implement the approach?
c. What is the extent of risk associated with each alternative?
(The nature of this step, in particular, in the problem solving process is why problem solving and decision making are highly integrated.)


5. Plan the implementation of the best alternative (this is your action plan)
a. Carefully consider "What will the situation look like when the problem is solved?"
b. What steps should be taken to implement the best alternative to solving the problem? What systems or processes should be changed in your organization, for example, a new policy or procedure? Don't resort to solutions where someone is "just going to try harder".
c. How will you know if the steps are being followed or not? (these are your indicators of the success of your plan)
d. What resources will you need in terms of people, money and facilities?
e. How much time will you need to implement the solution? Write a schedule that includes the start and stop times, and when you expect to see certain indicators of success.
f. Who will primarily be responsible for ensuring implementation of the plan?
g. Write down the answers to the above questions and consider this as your action plan.
h. Communicate the plan to those who will involved in implementing it and, at least, to your immediate supervisor.
(An important aspect of this step in the problem-solving process is continually observation and feedback.)


6. Monitor implementation of the plan
Monitor the indicators of success:
a. Are you seeing what you would expect from the indicators?
b. Will the plan be done according to schedule?
c. If the plan is not being followed as expected, then consider: Was the plan realistic? Are there sufficient resources to accomplish the plan on schedule? Should more priority be placed on various aspects of the plan? Should the plan be changed?


7. Verify if the problem has been resolved or not
One of the best ways to verify if a problem has been solved or not is to resume normal operations in the organization. Still, you should consider:
a. What changes should be made to avoid this type of problem in the future? Consider changes to policies and procedures, training, etc.
b. Lastly, consider "What did you learn from this problem solving?" Consider new knowledge, understanding and/or skills.
c. Consider writing a brief memo that highlights the success of the problem solving effort, and what you learned as a result. Share it with your supervisor, peers and subordinates.

For additional and advanced information, see:
Research Methods at http://www.managementhelp.org/research/research.htm
Systems Thinking at http://www.managementhelp.org/systems/systems.htm
Collecting and Sharing Feedback at http://www.managementhelp.org/commskls/feedback/feedback.htm
Making Decisions at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_prd/decision.htm
Problem Solving at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_prd/prob_slv.htm
Planning (Basics) at http://www.managementhelp.org/plan_dec/gen_plan/gen_plan.htm
Group-Based Problem Solving and Decision Making at http://www.managementhelp.org/grp_skll/grp_dec/grp_dec.htm

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Planning
Quick Look at Some Basic Terms
Planning typically includes use of the following basic terms.

NOTE: It's not critical to grasp completely accurate definitions of each of the following terms. It's more important for planners to have a basic sense for the difference between goals/objectives (results) and strategies/tasks (methods to achieve the results).


1. Goals
Goals are specific accomplishments that must be accomplished in total, or in some combination, in order to achieve some larger, overall result preferred from the system, for example, the mission of an organization. (Going back to our reference to systems, goals are outputs from the system.)


2. Strategies or Activities
These are the methods or processes required in total, or in some combination, to achieve the goals. (Going back to our reference to systems, strategies are processes in the system.)


3. Objectives
Objectives are specific accomplishments that must be accomplished in total, or in some combination, to achieve the goals in the plan. Objectives are usually "milestones" along the way when implementing the strategies.


4. Tasks
Particularly in small organizations, people are assigned various tasks required to implement the plan. If the scope of the plan is very small, tasks and activities are often essentially the same.


5. Resources (and Budgets)
Resources include the people, materials, technologies, money, etc., required to implement the strategies or processes. The costs of these resources are often depicted in the form of a budget. (Going back to our reference to systems, resources are input to the system.)


Basic Overview of Typical Phases in Planning
Whether the system is an organization, department, business, project, etc., the basic planning process typically includes similar nature of activities carried out in similar sequence. The phases are carried out carefully or -- in some cases -- intuitively, for example, when planning a very small, straightforward effort. The complexity of the various phases (and their duplication throughout the system) depend on the scope of the system. For example, in a large corporation, the following phases would be carried out in the corporate offices, in each division, in each department, in each group, etc.

NOTE: Different groups of planners might have different names for the following activities and groups them differently. However, the nature of the activities and their general sequence remains the same.

NOTE: The following are typical phases in planning. They do not comprise the complete, ideal planning process.


1. Reference Overall Singular Purpose ("Mission")
or Desired Result from System
During planning, planners have in mind (consciously or unconsciously) some overall purpose or result that the plan is to achieve. For example, during strategic planning, it's critical to reference the mission, or overall purpose, of the organization.


2. Take Stock Outside and Inside the System
This "taking stock" is always done to some extent, whether consciously or unconsciously. For example, during strategic planning, it's important to conduct an environmental scan. This scan usually involves considering various driving forces, or major influences, that might effect the organization.


3. Analyze the Situation
For example, during strategic planning, planners often conduct a "SWOT analysis". (SWOT is an acronym for considering the organization's strengths and weaknesses, and the opportunities and threats faced by the organization.) During this analysis, planners also can use a variety of assessments, or methods to "measure" the health of systems.


4. Establish Goals
Based on the analysis and alignment to the overall mission of the system, planners establish a set of goals that build on strengths to take advantage of opportunities, while building up weaknesses and warding off threats.


5. Establish Strategies to Reach Goals
The particular strategies (or methods to reach the goals) chosen depend on matters of affordability, practicality and efficiency.


6. Establish Objectives Along the Way to Achieving Goals
Objectives are selected to be timely and indicative of progress toward goals.


7. Associate Responsibilities and Time Lines With Each Objective
Responsibilities are assigned, including for implementation of the plan, and for achieving various goals and objectives. Ideally, deadlines are set for meeting each responsibility.


8. Write and Communicate a Plan Document
The above information is organized and written in a document which is distributed around the system.


9. Acknowledge and Celebrate Accomplishment of the Plan
This step is frequently forgotten, which can lead to increasing frustration and skepticism on the part of those people who are responsible to carry out the plan.


Guidelines to Ensure Successful Planning and Implementation
A common failure in many kinds of planning is that the plan is never really implemented. Instead, all focus is on writing a plan document. Too often, the plan sits collecting dust on a shelf. Therefore, most of the following guidelines help to ensure that the planning process is carried out completely and is implemented completely -- or, deviations from the intended plan are recognized and managed accordingly.


1. Involve the Right People in the Planning Process
Going back to the reference to systems, it's critical that all parts of the system continue to exchange feedback in order to function effectively. This is true no matter what type of system. When planning, get input from everyone who will responsible to carry out parts of the plan, along with representative from groups who will be effected by the plan. Of course, people also should be involved if they will be responsible to review and authorize the plan.


2. Write Down the Planning Information and Communicate it Widely
New managers, in particular, often forget that others don't know what these managers know. Even if managers do communicate their intentions and plans verbally, chances are great that others won't completely hear or understand what the manager wants done. Also, as plans change, it's extremely difficult to remember who is supposed to be doing what and according to which version of the plan. Key stakeholders (employees, management, board members, funders, investor, customers, clients, etc.) may request copies of various types of plans. Therefore, it's critical to write plans down and communicate them widely.


3. Goals and Objectives Should Be SMARTER
SMARTER is an acronym, that is, a word composed by joining letters from different words in a phrase or set of words. In this case, a SMARTER goal or objective is:

Specific:
For example, it's difficult to know what someone should be doing if they are to pursue the goal to "work harder". It's easier to recognize "Write a paper".

Measurable:
It's difficult to know what the scope of "Writing a paper" really is. It's easier to appreciate that effort if the goal is "Write a 30-page paper".

Acceptable:
If I'm to take responsibility for pursuit of a goal, the goal should be acceptable to me. For example, I'm not likely to follow the directions of someone telling me to write a 30-page paper when I also have to five other papers to write. However, if you involve me in setting the goal so I can change my other commitments or modify the goal, I'm much more likely to accept pursuit of the goal as well.

Realistic:
Even if I do accept responsibility to pursue a goal that is specific and measurable, the goal won't be useful to me or others if, for example, the goal is to "Write a 30-page paper in the next 10 seconds".

Time frame:
It may mean more to others if I commit to a realistic goal to "Write a 30-page paper in one week". However, it'll mean more to others (particularly if they are planning to help me or guide me to reach the goal) if I specify that I will write one page a day for 30 days, rather than including the possibility that I will write all 30 pages in last day of the 30-day period.

Extending:
The goal should stretch the performer's capabilities. For example, I might be more interested in writing a 30-page paper if the topic of the paper or the way that I write it will extend my capabilities.

Rewarding:
I'm more inclined to write the paper if the paper will contribute to an effort in such a way that I might be rewarded for my effort.


4. Build in Accountability (Regularly Review Who's Doing What and By When?)
Plans should specify who is responsible for achieving each result, including goals and objectives. Dates should be set for completion of each result, as well. Responsible parties should regularly review status of the plan. Be sure to have someone of authority "sign off" on the plan, including putting their signature on the plan to indicate they agree with and support its contents. Include responsibilities in policies, procedures, job descriptions, performance review processes, etc.


5. Note Deviations from the Plan and Replan Accordingly
It's OK to deviate from the plan. The plan is not a set of rules. It's an overall guideline. As important as following the plan is noticing deviations and adjusting the plan accordingly.


6. Evaluate Planning Process and the Plan
During the planning process, regularly collect feedback from participants. Do they agree with the planning process? If not, what don't they like and how could it be done better? In large, ongoing planning processes (such as strategic planning, business planning, project planning, etc.), it's critical to collect this kind of feedback regularly.

During regular reviews of implementation of the plan, assess if goals are being achieved or not. If not, were goals realistic? Do responsible parties have the resources necessary to achieve the goals and objectives? Should goals be changed? Should more priority be placed on achieving the goals? What needs to be done?

Finally, take 10 minutes to write down how the planning process could have been done better. File it away and read it the next time you conduct the planning process.


7. Recurring Planning Process is at Least as Important as Plan Document
Far too often, primary emphasis is placed on the plan document. This is extremely unfortunate because the real treasure of planning is the planning process itself. During planning, planners learn a great deal from ongoing analysis, reflection, discussion, debates and dialogue around issues and goals in the system. Perhaps there is no better example of misplaced priorities in planning than in business ethics. Far too often, people put emphasis on written codes of ethics and codes of conduct. While these documents certainly are important, at least as important is conducting ongoing communications around these documents. The ongoing communications are what sensitize people to understanding and following the values and behaviors suggested in the codes.


8. Nature of the Process Should Be Compatible to Nature of Planners
A prominent example of this type of potential problem is when planners don't prefer the "top down" or "bottom up", "linear" type of planning (for example, going from general to specific along the process of an environmental scan, SWOT analysis, mission/vision/values, issues and goals, strategies, objectives, timelines, etc.) There are other ways to conduct planning.


9. Critical -- But Frequently Missing Step -- Acknowledgement and Celebration of Results
It's easy for planners to become tired and even cynical about the planning process. One of the reasons for this problem is very likely that far too often, emphasis is placed on achieving the results. Once the desired results are achieved, new ones are quickly established. The process can seem like having to solve one problem after another, with no real end in sight. Yet when one really thinks about it, it's a major accomplishment to carefully analyze a situation, involve others in a plan to do something about it, work together to carry out the plan and actually see some results. So acknowledge this -- celebrate your accomplishment!

For additional and advanced information, see Planning (many kinds) at http://www.managementhelp.org/plan_dec/plan_dec.htm

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Effective Delegation
The hallmark of good supervision is effective delegation. Delegation is when supervisors give responsibility and authority to subordinates to complete a task, and let the subordinates figure out how the task can be accomplished. Effective delegation develops people who are ultimately more fulfilled and productive. Managers become more fulfilled and productive themselves as they learn to count on their staffs and are freed up to attend to more strategic issues.

Delegation is often very difficult for new supervisors, particularly if they have had to scramble to start the organization or start a major new product or service themselves. Many managers want to remain comfortable, making the same decisions they have always made. They believe they can do a better job themselves. They don't want to risk losing any of their power and stature (ironically, they do lose these if they don't learn to delegate effectively). Often, they don't want to risk giving authority to subordinates in case they fail and impair the organization.

However, there are basic approaches to delegation that, with practice, become the backbone of effective supervision and development. Thomas R. Horton, in Delegation and Team Building: No Solo Acts Please (Management Review, September 1992, pp. 58-61) suggests the following general steps to accomplish delegation:

1. Delegate the whole task to one person
This gives the person the responsibility and increases their motivation.

2. Select the right person
Assess the skills and capabilities of subordinates and assign the task to the most appropriate one.

3. Clearly specify your preferred results
Give information on what, why, when, who and where. You might leave the "how" to them. Write this information down.

4. Delegate responsibility and authority -- assign the task, not the method to accomplish it
Let the subordinate complete the task in the manner they choose, as long as the results are what the supervisor specifies. Let the employee have strong input as to the completion date of the project. Note that you may not even know how to complete the task yourself -- this is often the case with higher levels of management.

5. Ask the employee to summarize back to you, their impressions of the project and the results you prefer

6. Get ongoing non-intrusive feedback about progress on the project
This is a good reason to continue to get weekly, written status reports from all direct reports. Reports should cover what they did last week, plan to do next week and any potential issues. Regular employee meetings provide this ongoing feedback, as well.

7. Maintain open lines of communication
Don't hover over the subordinate, but sense what they're doing and support their checking in with you along the way.

8. If you're not satisfied with the progress, don't take the project back
Continue to work with the employee and ensure they perceive the project as their responsibility.

9. Evaluate and reward performance
Evaluate results more than methods. Address insufficient performance and reward successes. See the next major section, "Employee Performance Management."

For additional and advanced information, see Delegation at http://www.managementhelp.org/guiding/delegate/delegate.htm

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Basics of Internal Communications
Effective communications is the "life's blood" of an organization. Organizations that are highly successful have strong communications. One of the first signs that an organization is struggling is that communications have broken down. The following guidelines are very basic in nature, but comprise the basics for ensuring strong ongoing, internal communications.

1. Have all employees provide weekly written status reports to their supervisors
Include what tasks were done last week, what tasks are planned next week, any pending issues and date the report. These reports may seem a tedious task, but they're precious in ensuring that the employee and their supervisor have mutual understanding of what is going on, and the reports come in very handy for planning purposes. They also make otherwise harried employees stand back and reflect on what they're doing.

2. Hold monthly meetings with all employees together
Review the overall condition of the organization and review recent successes. Consider conducting "in service" training where employees take turns describing their roles to the rest of the staff. For clarity, focus and morale, be sure to use agendas and ensure follow-up minutes. Consider bringing in a customer to tell their story of how the organization helped them. These meetings go a long way toward building a feeling of teamwork among staff.

3. Hold weekly or biweekly meetings with all employees together if the organization is small (e.g., under 10 people); otherwise, with all managers together
Have these meetings even if there is not a specific problem to solve -- just make them shorter. (Holding meetings only when there are problems to solve cultivates a crisis-oriented environment where managers believe their only job is to solve problems.) Use these meetings for each person to briefly give an overview of what they are doing that week. Facilitate the meetings to support exchange of ideas and questions. Again, for clarity, focus and morale, be sure to use agendas, take minutes and ensure follow-up minutes. Have each person bring their calendar to ensure scheduling of future meetings accommodates each person's calendar.

4. Have supervisors meet with their direct reports in one-on-one meetings every month
This ultimately produces more efficient time management and supervision. Review overall status of work activities, hear how it's going with both the supervisor and the employee, exchange feedback and questions about current products and services, and discuss career planning, etc. Consider these meetings as interim meetings between the more formal, yearly performance review meetings.


For additional and advanced resources about face-to-face communications, see:

Internal Communications at http://www.managementhelp.org/org_comm/org_comm.htm#anchor919248
Feedback at http://www.managementhelp.org/commskls/feedback/feedback.htm
Listening at http://www.managementhelp.org/commskls/listen/listen.htm
Presenting at http://www.managementhelp.org/commskls/presntng/presntng.htm
Non-Verbal Communications at http://www.managementhelp.org/commskls/non_vrbl/non_vrbl.htm

For additional and advanced resources about interpersonal communications, see:

Building Trust at http://www.managementhelp.org/intrpsnl/trust.htm
Conflict (Interpersonal) at http://www.managementhelp.org/intrpsnl/conflict.htm
Etiquette (Manners) at http://www.managementhelp.org/intrpsnl/etiqette.htm
Handling Difficult People at http://www.managementhelp.org/intrpsnl/diffcult.htm
Valuing Diversity at http://www.managementhelp.org/intrpsnl/divrsity.htm
Negotiating at http://www.managementhelp.org/intrpsnl/negotate.htm
Office Politics at http://www.managementhelp.org/intrpsnl/off_pltc.htm

For additional and advanced resources about written communications, see:

Communications (Writing) at http://www.managementhelp.org/commskls/cmm_writ.htm


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Meeting Management
Meeting management tends to be a set of skills often overlooked by leaders and managers. The following information is a rather "Cadillac" version of meeting management suggestions. The reader might pick which suggestions best fits the particular culture of their own organization. Keep in mind that meetings are very expensive activities when one considers the cost of labor for the meeting and how much can or cannot get done in them. So take meeting management very seriously.

The process used in a meeting depends on the kind of meeting you plan to have, e.g., staff meeting, planning meeting, problem solving meeting, etc. However, there are certain basics that are common to various types of meetings. These basics are described below.

(Note that there may seem to be a lot of suggestions listed below for something as apparently simple as having a meeting. However, any important activity would include a long list of suggestions. The list seems to become much smaller once you master how to conduct the activity.)


Selecting Participants
1. The decision about who is to attend depends on what you want to accomplish in the meeting. This may seem too obvious to state, but it's surprising how many meetings occur without the right people there.
2. Don't depend on your own judgment about who should come. Ask several other people for their opinion as well.
3. If possible, call each person to tell them about the meeting, it's overall purpose and why their attendance is important.
4. Follow-up your call with a meeting notice, including the purpose of the meeting, where it will be held and when, the list of participants and whom to contact if they have questions.
5. Send out a copy of the proposed agenda along with the meeting notice.
6. Have someone designated to record important actions, assignments and due dates during the meeting. This person should ensure that this information is distributed to all participants shortly after the meeting.


Developing Agendas
1. Develop the agenda together with key participants in the meeting. Think of what overall outcome you want from the meeting and what activities need to occur to reach that outcome. The agenda should be organized so that these activities are conducted during the meeting.
In the agenda, state the overall outcome that you want from the meeting
2. Design the agenda so that participants get involved early by having something for them to do right away and so they come on time.
3. Next to each major topic, include the type of action needed, the type of output expected (decision, vote, action assigned to someone), and time estimates for addressing each topic
4. Ask participants if they'll commit to the agenda.
5. Keep the agenda posted at all times.
6. Don't overly design meetings; be willing to adapt the meeting agenda if members are making progress in the planning process.
7. Think about how you label an event, so people come in with that mindset; it may pay to have a short dialogue around the label to develop a common mindset among attendees, particularly if they include representatives from various cultures.


Opening Meetings
1. Always start on time; this respects those who showed up on time and reminds late-comers that the scheduling is serious.
2. Welcome attendees and thank them for their time.
3. Review the agenda at the beginning of each meeting, giving participants a chance to understand all proposed major topics, change them and accept them.
4. Note that a meeting recorder if used will take minutes and provide them back to each participant shortly after the meeting.
5. Model the kind of energy and participant needed by meeting participants.
6. Clarify your role(s) in the meeting.


Establishing Ground Rules for Meetings
You don't need to develop new ground rules each time you have a meeting, surely. However, it pays to have a few basic ground rules that can be used for most of your meetings. These ground rules cultivate the basic ingredients needed for a successful meeting.
1. Four powerful ground rules are: participate, get focus, maintain momentum and reach closure. (You may want a ground rule about confidentiality.)
2. List your primary ground rules on the agenda.
3. If you have new attendees who are not used to your meetings, you might review each ground rule.
4. Keep the ground rules posted at all times.


Time Management
1. One of the most difficult facilitation tasks is time management -- time seems to run out before tasks are completed. Therefore, the biggest challenge is keeping momentum to keep the process moving.
2. You might ask attendees to help you keep track of the time.
3. If the planned time on the agenda is getting out of hand, present it to the group and ask for their input as to a resolution.


Evaluations of Meeting Process
It's amazing how often people will complain about a meeting being a complete waste of time -- but they only say so after the meeting. Get their feedback during the meeting when you can improve the meeting process right away. Evaluating a meeting only at the end of the meeting is usually too late to do anything about participants' feedback.
1. Every couple of hours, conduct 5-10 minutes "satisfaction checks".
2. In a round-table approach, quickly have each participant indicate how they think the meeting is going.


Evaluating the Overall Meeting
1. Leave 5-10 minutes at the end of the meeting to evaluate the meeting; don't skip this portion of the meeting.
2. Have each member rank the meeting from 1-5, with 5 as the highest, and have each member explain their ranking
3. Have the chief executive rank the meeting last.


Closing Meetings
1. Always end meetings on time and attempt to end on a positive note.
2. At the end of a meeting, review actions and assignments, and set the time for the next meeting and ask each person if they can make it or not (to get their commitment)
3. Clarify that meeting minutes and/or actions will be reported back to members in at most a week (this helps to keep momentum going).

For additional and advanced information, see
Meeting Management at http://www.managementhelp.org/grp_skll/meetings/meetings.htm

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Managing Yourself

There are many sources of additional information and advice referenced at the end of this section.

Role of New Manager or Supervisor of Often Very Stressful
The experience of a first-time supervisor or manager is often one of the most trying in their career. They rarely have adequate training for the new management role -- they were promoted because of their technical expertise, not because of their managerial expertise. They suddenly have a wide range of policies and other regulations to apply to their subordinates. Work is never "done". They must represent upper management to their subordinates, and their subordinates to upper management. They're stuck in the middle. They can feel very alone.


Guidelines to Manage Yourself
Everyone in management has gone through the transition from individual contributor to manager. Each person finds their own way to "survive". The following guidelines will help you keep your perspective and your health.

1. Monitor your work hours
The first visible, undeniable sign that things are out of hand is that you're working too many hours. Note how many hours you are working per week. Set a limit and stick to that limit. Ask your peers or boss for help.

2. Recognize your own signs of stress
Different people show their stress in different ways. Some people have "blow ups". Some people get very forgetful. Some people lose concentration. For many people, they excel at their jobs, but their home life falls apart. Know your signs of stress. Tell someone else what they are. Ask them to check in with you every two weeks to see how you are doing. Every two weeks, write down how you are doing -- if only for a minute. Stick in it a file marked "%*#)%&!!#$".

3. Get a mentor or a coach
Ideally, your supervisors is a very good mentor and coach. Many people have "been there, done that" and can serve as great mentors to you.

4. Learn to delegate
Delegating is giving others the responsibility and authority to carry out tasks. You maintain the accountability to get them done, but you let others decide how they will carry out the tasks themselves. Delegation is a skill to learn. Start learning it.<

5. Communicate as much as you can
Have at least one person in your life with whom you are completely honest. Hold regular meetings with staff -- all of them in one meeting at least once a month, and meet at least once every two weeks with each of your direct reports. A common problem among new managers and supervisors (or among experienced, but ineffective ones) is not meeting unless there's something to say. There is always something to communicate, even if to say that things are going well and then share the health of your pets. New managers and supervisors often assume that their employees know as much as they do. One of the first signs of an organization in trouble is that communications break down. Err on the side of too much communication, rather than not enough.

6. Recognize what's important from what's urgent -- fix the system, not the problem
One of the major points that experienced manages make is that they've learned to respond to what's important, rather than what's urgent. Phone calls, sick employees, lost paperwork, disagreements between employees all seem to suddenly crop up and demand immediate attention. It can seem like your day is responding to one crises after another. As you gain experience, you quit responding to the crisis and instead respond to the problem that causes the crises. You get an answering machine or someone else to answer the phone. You plan for employees being gone for the day -- and you accept that people get sick. You develop a filing system to keep track of your paperwork. You learn basic skills in conflict management. Most important, you recognize that management is a process -- you never really "finish" your to-do list -- your list is there to help you keep track of details. Over time, you learn to relax.

7. Recognize accomplishments
Our society promotes problem solvers. We solve one problem and quickly move on to the next. The culture of many organizations rewards problem solvers. Once a problem is solved, we quickly move on to the next to solve that one, too. Pretty soon we feel empty. We feel as if we're not making a difference. Our subordinates do, too. So in all your plans, include time to acknowledge accomplishments -- if only by having a good laugh by the coffee machine, do take time to note that something useful was done.


For additional sources of information to manage your productivity, see:

Delegation at http://www.managementhelp.org/guiding/delegate/delegate.htm
Decision Making
Organizing Yourself at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_prd/off_org.htm
Problem Solving at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_prd/prob_slv.htm
Time Management at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_prd/time_mng.htm
Getting Coached at http://www.managementhelp.org/guiding/coaching/coaching.htm#anchor4294655486
Getting a Mentor at http://www.managementhelp.org/guiding/mentrng/mentrng.htm#anchor4294745062

For additional sources of information to manage your well-being, see:

Assertiveness at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_wll/assrtvns.htm
Attitude at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_wll/attitude.htm
Burnout at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_wll/burnout.htm
Cynicism at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_wll/cynicism.htm
Emotional Intelligence at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_wll/emotions.htm
Financial Fitness at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_wll/finance.htm
Job Satisfaction
Motivating and Inspiring Yourself at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_wll/motivate.htm
Physical Fitness at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_wll/fitness.htm
Self-Confidence at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_wll/confdenc.htm
Stress Management at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_wll/stress.htm
Work-Life Balance at http://www.managementhelp.org/prsn_wll/wrk_life.htm


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=== DESIGNING ORGANIZATION, STAFF & TEAMS ===


Designing Organization and Staff
Overall, the organization and its various groups should be organized in the configuration that reaches business goals in the most effective and efficient fashion. Guidelines in this section will help you ensure your organization and its various groups are organized in the best configuration possible.

NOTE: Sources for additional and advanced information are included at the end of this section.

If You Are In An Already Established Organizations, Then Organizing Will Be Easier if You Have Been ...
1. Conducting strategic planning to regularly review the purpose of your organization, its overall goals and who should be doing what to meet those goals
2. Using sound principles of employee performance management to regularly review what employees should be doing to produce results, how they're doing toward their results, and what must be done to help them do a better job of achieving results

If You Are In An Already Established Organizations, Then Typical Problems That Suggest Need for Organizing (or Re-Organizing) Are ...
There are several problems that seem to keep coming up in small businesses, whether for-profit or nonprofit. These problems include:
1. An employee keeps complaining (and you agree) that he or she is overloaded with work.
2. Employees complain that their activities overlap.
3. An employee indicates (and you agree) that he or she does not have enough work to do during a work day.
4. Employees complain that they're reporting to more than one boss, or supervisor.
5. An employee complains that their work includes very different tasks. For example, they may have a highly complex and demanding project (e.g., leading strategic planning) and a large routine, recurring task (sorting a great deal of the organization's daily mail).
6. Management notices a large amount of employee turnover, that is, employees don't stay long enough with the organization.
7. A department, or major function in the organization, has recurring problems.

NOTE: It is not always problems that provoke the need for organizing. For example, if the organization has been conducting strategic planning and produced new goals, these goals may require the organization to reorganize. For example, if the business wants to expand marketshare in a certain region, then the organization may need a new office in that region, more sales people, etc.

General Principles to Remember
Whether you're in an already established or a new organization, the activity of organizing and re-organizing can be a major undertaking that has substantial effect on everyone in the organization. Therefore, before we visit some specific guidelines for carrying out change, it's important to keep the following general principles in mind:
1. Don't get wrapped up in doing change for the sake of change. Know why you're making the change. Know what overall goal(s) do you hope to accomplish.
2. Successful change must involve the strong, ongoing, visible participation of top management.
3. Usually there's a champion who initially instigates the change by being visionary, persuasive and consistent.
4. A change agent role is usually responsible to translate the vision to a realistic plan and carry out the plan.
5. Take care of yourself first. Organization-wide change can be highly stressful.
6. The process won't be an "aha!" It will likely not be as bad as you might expect, but won't be as good as you'd prefer either.
7. Keep perspective. Keep focused on meeting the needs of your customers.
8. Don't seek to control change, but rather to expect it, understand it and manage it.
9. Change is usually best carried out as a team-wide effort.
10. Communications about the change should be frequent and with all organization members.
11. To sustain change, the structures of the organization itself should be modified, including strategic plans, policies and procedures.

General Guidelines for Planning the Organizing
Recurring problems often seem to have little to do with the business's overall purpose and goals. However, any attempts at reorganizing may be just fine tuning, or tweaking, if not done with the long term in mind. In fact, the recurring problems may be a symptom of the organization's not having clearly thought out what its overall purpose and goals are. Without visiting the overall purpose and goals, redesign is usually a highly reactive and very short-term fix. Therefore:
1. Carefully consider conducting a strategic planning process to guide you through reviewing your organization's purpose.
2. Consider using a consultant. Ensure the consultant is highly experienced in organization-wide change. Ask to see references and check the references.
3. Plan the change. How do you plan to reach the goals, what will you need to reach the goals, how long might it take and how will you know when you've reached your goals or not? What will you need in resources and how much will they probably cost? Focus on the coordination of the departments/programs in your organization, not on each part by itself. Have someone in charge of the plan.
4. Document a plan. Forums should be held for organization members to express their ideas for the plan. They should be able to express their concerns and frustrations as well. Note that plans do change. That's fine, but communicate that the plan has changed and why.
5. Include closure in the plan to acknowledge and celebrate your accomplishments.
6. Get as much feedback as practical from employees during planning and implementation of the change, including what they think are the problems and what should be done to resolve them. If possible, work with a team of employees to manage the change.
7. Widely communicate the plan, including the need for change. The best approaches to address resistance to change is through increased and sustained communications and education.

Guidelines During Organizational Design
One of the most frequent and straightforward means to guide decisions about organizational design is to examine similar businesses, including similar design and nature of services and products. However, management should still undertake careful examination of the design of their business. The following guidelines will help you in this activity.

Lewis, Lewis and Souflee, in Management of Human Service Organizations (Books/Cole, 1991, p. 80) list several key questions developing an organizational design. These questions apply, whether for-profit or nonprofit organization. [Items in brackets "[!!]" were inserted by Carter McNamara.!!]
1. What are the primary goals and objectives that the organization should be designed to meet? (Strategic planning will help you determine what these goals are.)
2. What continuing activities need to be performed in order to implement the strategies that have been selected as part of the planning process? (Strategic planning will help you determine the answer to this question, too.)
3. How can the necessary activities to be divided so that individuals or groups can be assigned responsibility for performing them [that is, organized into separate roles and jobs!!]? [Activities should be grouped into related and similar activities as much as possible so that individuals are working on tasks that are related and similar.!!]
4. Once activities have been grouped into specific jobs, what kind of authority and responsibility should be assigned?
5. How and by whom should decisions be made? [Attempt to always and ultimately have one person who is singularly responsible for decisions!!].
6. How specialized should roles be?
7. Who should control the work being performed?
8. How can communication and coordination among members of the organization be facilitated?
9. How can job and role descriptions be developed to take into account both functions and accountabilities?
10. How can coordination and communication with the external social environment be facilitated?

[Also strive to have:
11. Every employee ultimately reporting to one person, if possible, and they should know who that person is. Job descriptions are often complained about, but they are useful in specifying who reports to whom.
12. Carefully consider the span of control, that is, how many people are reporting to whom. Can each manager really supervise that many people in an effective fashion?
13. When done designing the group, always build structure into the new design through the use of organizational charts, job descriptions, policies and procedures that document the design and who is doing what in it.

For additional and advanced information, see Strategic Planning at http://www.managementhelp.org/plan_dec/str_plan/str_plan.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Specifying Jobs and Roles at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/specify/specify.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Common Dimensions in Organizations (features to consider about organizations) at http://www.managementhelp.org/org_thry/dimensns.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Key Concepts in the Design of an Organization at http://www.managementhelp.org/org_thry/concepts.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Organizing (many kinds) at http://www.managementhelp.org/orgnzing/orgnzing.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Organizational Change at http://www.managementhelp.org/org_chng/org_chng.htm

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=== === STAFFING === ===
Defining a New Job Role
1. Recognizing the need for the new role
Often, managers realize the need for a new organizational role when employees continue to report being short-handed and mention the same tasks are not being done. Ideally, planning for a new role is done during strategic planning or when a new product or service is added to the organization.

For additional information, see Workforce Planning at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/planning/planning.htm
2. Draft a job description
Management should draft a job description which specifies the general responsibilities of the position along with some of the specific duties to be conducted by the role, the title for the position, and any special skills, training or credentials required. (Do not seek job descriptions from other organizations and merely adopt those. Your open position is unique and job descriptions are very important so you should develop your own -- the process of completing the job description is usually enlightening.) Note which job activities are essential and which are non-essential. Add whom the position reports to and note if the position is full-time or part-time. Consider if the position requires any special physical skills (this may be important when considering accommodations to candidates with physical disabilities and effects from the Americans with Disabilities Act). If the position must be filled by a paid employee (see the next paragraph to consider if a volunteer or consultant is more appropriate), consider if the position is exempt or non-exempt (exempt from being paid overtime). Usually, highly skilled and/or professional roles are exempt, while entry-level positions are non-exempt and will be paid for over-time. Invite employees to review and edit the drafted job description. Consider including a six-month probationary period for the new position and if you do so, be sure to update your personnel policies to describe your organization's use of the probationary conditions. A probationary period allows you to fire an employee during the six months if you have concerns and greatly decreases the chances you will be sued for wrongful termination.

For additional and advanced information, see Conducting Job and Task Analyses at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/specify/job_nlyz/job_nlyz.htm
For additional information, see Job Descriptions at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/specify/job_desc/job_desc.htm
3. Would a volunteer (in the case of nonprofits) or consultant be appropriate?
At this point, consider if the new position might be filled by a volunteer or consultant. If the activities associated with the role are highly critical for an extended duration, e.g., over six months, and require both critical and general skills, you may be better off to count on hiring an employee. On the other hand, if the role's activities are entry-level and if you are not sure that the position is really needed for the long term, consider getting volunteers to fill the role. If the role requires highly skilled personnel for a fixed duration, consider hiring a consultant.

For additional and advanced information, see Hiring a Consultant at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/outsrcng/consult/consult.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Volunteer Programs at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/outsrcng/volnteer/volnteer.htm
4. Determine the approximate cost of the new role
Estimate the salary range for the new position. Set this range by talking to other organizations with similar product or services, or by scanning classified sections of newspapers with ads for similar roles. Finalize how much the position will cost the organization by adding "fringe" to the salary. For planning purposes, fringe might be estimated at 40% of the salary. Fringe includes costs of benefits planned for the new role, including health and dental and life insurance, and retirement benefits, along with required unemployment taxes, worker's compensation and any pension plans. Note that, depending on the state in which you live, you may be required to required to pay certain employment taxes for part-time people, often if they are at or over half-time. Additional costs of the position result from training, equipment, rental of space, postage, copying, etc. (You should develop a compensation program, with policies that outline the procedure for determination of salary and benefits.

For additional and advanced information, see Benefits and Compensation at http://www.managementhelp.org/pay_ben/pay_ben.htm
5. Get feedback and authorization from the board (in the case of corporations)
You may want to work with the board chair to prepare for communication of the new job to the board. Propose the new position to the board by attaching a proposal letter to the drafted job description along with description of how the position will be funded and sending it to all board members for their review before the next board meeting. At the board meeting, invite open discussion and questions about the new role. Seek their authorization for the new position.

6. Finalize the job description
Update the job description with relevant feedback from the boar (in the case of corporations). It's important that the job description be as accurate as possible because it is the basis for determining initial compensation, conveying the role to the new employee and conducting regular performance appraisals. Be sure to note the version of the job description by including the date on the bottom. The job description should be reviewed and updated annually, usually by the employee and supervisor during the performance review cycle (described later on in this section).

For additional and advanced information, see Job Descriptions at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/specify/job_desc/job_desc.htm

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Hiring (Advertising, Screening and Selecting)
1. Advertise the position
Post ads in classified sections of local major and neighborhood newspapers. In the ads, include the job title, general responsibilities, minimum skills and/or education required, whom they should send a resume to if they are interested and by when. Consider having a closing date after which you won't accept resumes. Mention the role to customers. Send cover letters and job descriptions to professional organizations. Be sure to mention the role to all employees to see if they have any favorite candidates.

For additional and advanced information, see Advertising for Employees at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/recruit/advrtzng/advrtzng.htm
2. Current employees should be able to apply for the job.
Considerations in hiring them for the new role will have to include the impact on the organization if the employee leaves behind a critical and unfilled role in the organization. Some organizations may elect to give internal candidates the first shot at the job.

3. Screen resumes
When screening resumes, note the candidate's career objective -- or the lack of it. If not specified, the candidate may not have considered what they want to do in the future, which may impact their commitment to your new role. Note if they stayed at jobs long or left quickly. Are there holes in their work history? Note their education and training. Is it appropriate for the new role? Consider what capabilities and skills might be evidenced in their past and current work activities. If you have lots of resumes, it helps greatly to enter in a word processor, the "highlights" and "concerns" information about each candidate; otherwise, after about 10 resumes, they all look the same. Having information online helps you keep perspective and you can go back later and have a strong overview of the candidates. Consider routing resumes past key employees to collect their rankings. Interview all candidates that meet the minimum qualifications. (At this point, be sure that you're not excluding candidates because of unfair biases.)

For additional and advanced information, see Screening Applicants at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/screeng/screeng.htm
4. Interview candidates
Send the job description to candidates before they come to the interview meeting. While interviewing candidates, always apply the same questions to all candidates to ensure fairness. All questions should be in regard to performing the duties of the job. Ask about their compensation needs and expected or needed benefits. Attempt to ask open-ended questions, i.e., avoid "yes-no" questions. Talk for at most 25% of the time -- for the rest, listen. Don't rely on your memory -- ask permission from the interviewee to take notes. Find out when they can start if offered the job. Consider having multiple people at the interview; although this can be intimidating to the interviewee, this practice can ensure them a much more objective and fair presentation. Have the same interviewers in all of the interviews if possible. Consider asking some challenging, open-ended questions, such as "What skills do you bring to this job?", "What concerns do you have about filling this role?", "What was your biggest challenge in a past job and how did you meet it?" Don't ask questions about race, nationality, age, gender, disabilities (current or previous), marital status, spouses, children and their care, criminal records or credit records. Have all interviewers share/record their impressions of the candidate soon after the interview meeting. Explain to the candidate that you'll be getting back to them soon, and always do this. Ask if you can get and check any references. Always check references and share them with the interviewers. Be sure to tell candidates of any relevant personnel policies terms, such as probationary periods. (The best way to deal with a poor performer is not to hire him or her in the first place. It is often wise to have a probationary period of, e.g., six months, wherein if the employee does not meet the responsibilities of the position, you can terminate the employee.) If practical, look into the applicant's background to ascertain if they have a criminal record.

For additional and advanced information, see Interviewing Job Candidates at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/screeng/intrvwng/intrvwng.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Background Checks at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/screeng/bck_grnd/bck_grnd.htm
5. Select the candidate
Usually, this is not as easy as one would like because two or three candidates come in close. Have a highly focused meeting with all interviewers. Have each suggest their favorite candidate. If there is disagreement, focus discussion to identify the one or two areas in which interviewers disagree about the candidates. Then have each interviewer explain their impressions. At this point, interviewers usually come to consensus and agree on one candidate.

For additional and advanced information, see Selecting (Hiring) New Employees at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/selectng/selectng.htm
6. If there does not seem to be suitable candidate
Consider if the job requirements are too stringent or are an odd mix. For example, you might not find someone who's highly interested in a certain technical skill or service and who also shows strong interest in general skills. Reconfigure the job so that required skills and training are somewhat similar and the role becomes more standard. Or, consider hiring the candidate who came in closest and plan for dedicated training to bring their skills to the needed levels. Or, re-advertise the position. Consider getting advice from a human resources professional (at this point, your need for them is quite specific, so they might provide services on a pro bono basis). Or, consider hiring a consultant on a short-term basis, but only as a last resort as this may be quite expensive.

For additional and advanced information, see Workforce Planning at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/planning/planning.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Hiring a Consultant at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/outsrcng/consult/consult.htm
7. If everyone turns down the job
The best strategy is to ask the candidates why they turned the job down. Usually, you'll hear the same concerns, e.g., the pay is too low or the benefits incomplete, the organization seems confused about what it wants from the role, the interview process seemed hostile or contentious, etc. Reconvene the interviewers and consider what you heard from the candidates. Recognize what went wrong and correct the problem. Call back your favorite candidates, admit the mistake and what you did, and why you'd like to make an offer to them again.

8. Offer letter
If they accept an offer, always follow-up with an offer letter, specifying the compensation, benefits, and starting date and reference an attached job description. Ask them to sign a copy of the offer letter and return it to you.

For additional and advanced information, see Job Offers at http://www.managementhelp.org/staffing/selectng/job_offr/job_offr.htm
9. Start a personnel file
Include in the file, the signed offer letter, tax withholding forms, the job description and any benefits forms.

For additional and advanced information, see Personnel Records at http://www.managementhelp.org/policies/prsn_rec/prsn_rec.htm

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Building Teams
Management experts assert that most work (and most learning) occurs in teams. Therefore, it's important to know how to design, build and support highly effective teams.

NOTE: There are several major "breakthroughs" in how teams are designed and carried out. These activities can be done. These breakthroughs are in regard to the extent of independence of the teams, producing, for example, self-organized teams, self-directed teams and self-managed teams.

NOTE: Additional and advanced information is referenced at the end of this section.


Major Types of Teams (or Groups)
There are many types of teams. The type used depends very much on the nature of the results the team is to accomplish.


Fomal and informal teams
are "official" parts of the overall organization, assigned to a major, ongoing function, for example, quality management, patient care, etc. Management appoints formal teams. Informal teams are usually loosely organized groups of people who volunteer to come together to address a non-critical, short-term purpose.


Committees
are organized to address, major ongoing tasks in an organization and membership is based on position, for example, committees in boards of directors, grievance committees, etc.


Problem solving teams
These teams are formed to address a particular, major problem currently faced by the organization. Often, their overall goal is to provide a written report that includes recommendations for solving the problem. Membership is comprised of people who perceive and experience the problem, as well as those who can do something about it.


Self-directed and self-managed teams
These increasingly used types of teams afford members great latitude in how they achieve the overall results preferred from the team. For example, they may select their leader who serves for a limited time and purpose, depending on the particular point in the group's process. This type of team is used especially when the team is working in a complex, rapidly changing environment.


Stages of Team Development
It helps a great deal to have some basic sense for the life of a team. Teams go through several major phases including the following:


Forming:
Members first get together. Individually, they consider "What am I here for?", "Who else is here", "Who am I comfortable with?", etc. During this stage, it's important to get members involved, including to introduce themselves to each other. The team may require clear leadership to facilitate clarity and comfort for involvement of members.


Storming:
During this stage, members are beginning to voice their individual differences, trying for join with others who share the same beliefs, trying to jockey for position in the group. Therefore, it's important for members to continue to be highly involved, including voicing their concerns in order to feel represented and understood. The team leader should focus on clarity of views, achieving consensus (or commonality of views) and recording decisions.


Norming:
In this stage, members begin to share common commitment to the purpose of the group, including its overall goals and how it will reach those goals. The team leader should focus on achieving clarity of roles, structure and process of the group.


Performing:
In this stage, the team is "humming". Members are actively participating in the team process in order to achieve the goals of the group and its organization. During this stage, the style of leadership becomes more indirect as members take on stronger participation and involvement in the group process.


Closing and Celebration:
At this stage, it's clear to members and their organization that the team has achieved its overall purpose (or a major milestone along the way). It's critical to acknowledge this point in the life of the team, lest members feel unfulfilled and skeptical about future team efforts.


Guidelines for Designing Teams
1. Set clear goals for the results to be produced by the team
The goals should be designed to be "SMARTER", that is, be specific, measurable, acceptable to members, realistic, and have a time frame to be started and stopped, extend the capabilities of members and provide reward for their accomplishment. As much as possible, include input from other members of the organization when designing and wording these goals. Goals might be, for example, "produce a project report that specifies project plan, schedule and budget to develop and test a complete employee performance management system within the next year". Write these goals down for eventual communication to and discussion with all team members.

2. Set clear goals for the effectiveness of the team process
The goals should also be designed to be "SMARTER". Goals might be, for example, attain 90% participation of all members during the first 6 weeks of weekly attendance, achieve 90% satisfaction ratings among members, each person takes at least one turn at facilitating the group, meetings start and stop on time, etc. Write these goals down for eventual communication to all team members. Write these goals down for eventual communication to and discussion with all team members.

3. Determine time frames for commencing and terminating the team, if applicable
Write these times down for eventual communication to and discussion with all team members.

4. Determine the type of team
Various types of teams have various purposes. Consider use of permanent teams, committees, self-directed teams, problem solving teams, etc. (See additional information provided at the end of this section.)

5. Determine the membership of the group
Consider the extent of expertise needed to achieve the goals, including areas of knowledge and skills. Include at least one person who has skills in facilitation and meeting management. Attempt to include sufficient diversity of values and perspectives to ensure robust ideas and discussion. A critical consideration is availability -- members should have the time to attend every meeting.

6. Determine the structure of the group
Structure includes the number of people in the group, how often they will meet and when and who will be the leader of the group.

7. Determine the process of the group
Depending on the nature of the results to be produced by the group, the process might be focused on open discussion, action planning, problem solving and decision making, generating recommendations, etc.

8. Identify any needs for training and materials
For example, members might benefit from brief overview of the stages of development of a team, receive training and packets of materials in regard to their goals and the structure and process of their team, etc.

9. Identify the costs to provide necessary resources for the team
Consider the cost of paying employees to attend the meeting, trainers and/or consultants, room rental, office supplies, etc.

10. Plan the first meeting
In the first meeting, communicate the goals of the team, why each member was selected, the overall benefit of the goals to the organization, the time frame for the team effort, who will lead the team (at least, initially), when the team might meet and where, etc. Have this information written down to hand out to each member.

11. Early on, plan team building activities to support trust and strong working relationships among members
Team building activities can include, for example, a retreat in which members introduce themselves, exercises in which members help each other solve a short problem or meet a specific and achievable goal, extended period in which members can voice their concerns and frustrations about their team assignments, etc.

12. Support team meetings and processes
At this point, it's critical that supervisors remain available to provide support and resources as needed. Monitor that team goals are being met. Provide ongoing encouragement and visibility to members. One of the most important forms of support a supervisor can provide is coordination with other supervisors to ensure that team members are freed up enough to attend team meetings.

For additional and advanced information, see Goals and Objectives Should Be SMARTER at http://www.managementhelp.org/policies/prsn_rec/prsn_rec.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Committees at http://www.managementhelp.org/policies/prsn_rec/prsn_rec.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Conflict Management in Groups at http://www.managementhelp.org/policies/prsn_rec/prsn_rec.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Facilitating in Face-to-Face Groups at http://www.managementhelp.org/policies/prsn_rec/prsn_rec.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Group Dynamics (about nature of groups, stages of group development, etc) at http://www.managementhelp.org/policies/prsn_rec/prsn_rec.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Group-Based Problem Solving and Decision Making at http://www.managementhelp.org/policies/prsn_rec/prsn_rec.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Meeting Management at http://www.managementhelp.org/policies/prsn_rec/prsn_rec.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Self-Directed and Self-Managed Work Teams at http://www.managementhelp.org/policies/prsn_rec/prsn_rec.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Team Building at http://www.managementhelp.org/policies/prsn_rec/prsn_rec.htm

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=== === TRAINING === ===
Orienting New Employees
Develop an employee orientation checklist and consider the following activities for inclusion on the list. The following activities should be conducted by the employee's supervisor.

1. Before the employee begins employment, send them a letter welcoming them
to the organization, verifying their starting date and providing them a copy of the employee policies and procedures manual. Note that you'll dedicate time for them to discuss with manual with you later.

2. When the employee begins employment, meet with them
to explain how they will be trained, introduce them to staff, give them keys, get them to sign any needed benefit and tax forms, explain the time-recording system (if applicable), and provide them copies of important documents (an organization chart, last year's final report, the strategic plan, this year's budget, and the employee's policies and procedure manual if they did not get one already).

3. Show them the facilities,
including layout of offices, bathrooms, storage areas, kitchen use, copy and fax systems, computer configuration and procedures, telephone usage, and any special billing procedures for use of office systems.

4. Schedule any needed computer training,
including use of passwords, overview of software and documentation, location and use of peripherals, and where to go to get questions answered.

5. Review any policies and/or procedures about use of facilities.

6. Assign an employee to them as their "buddy"
who remains available to answer any questions.

7. Take them to lunch on the first day
and invite other employees along.

8. Meet with them at the end of the day
to hear any questions or comments.

9. Meet with the new employee during the first few days
of employment to review the job description again. Remind them to review the employee manual and sign a form indicating they have reviewed the manual and will comply with its contents. Review any specific goals for the position, e.g., goals from the strategic plan. In the same meeting, explain the performance review procedure and provide them a copy of the performance review document.

10. Have one-on-one meetings with the new employee on a weekly basis for the first six weeks,
to discuss the new employee's transition into the organization, get status on work activities, hear any pending issues or needs, and establish a working relationship with their supervisor.

For additional and advanced information, see Employee Orientation at http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/orientng/orientng.htm

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Job Training
Some Basics to Know About Training
Variety of Reasons for Training
Employee job training can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees, e.g.,:
a.) When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed
b.) To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort
c.) As part of an overall professional development program
d.) As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization
e.) To "pilot", or test, the operation of a new performance management system
f.) To train about a specific topic


Very Basic Types of Training
When planning training for your employees, it helps to understand some basics about training. Let's look at four types of training.


Self-Directed Learning
Self-directed learning is where the learner decides what he or she will learn and how.


Other-Directed Learning
Other-directed learning is where other people decide what the learner will learn and how.


Informal training
Informal training has no predetermined form. Examples are reading books to learn about a subject, talking to friends about the subject, attending a presentation, etc.


Formal Training
Formal training has a predetermined form. The form usually includes specification of learning results, learning objectives and activities that will achieve the results, and how the training will be evaluated. Examples might be college courses, workshops, seminars, etc. Note that because formal training has a form, it does not necessarily mean that formal training is better than other forms.


Informal Means of Training
This is probably the most common type of training and includes, for example, on-the-job training, coaching from supervisors, using manuals and procedures, advice from peers, etc.


Coaching
Probably the most common form of informal training is job coaching.
1. The supervisor, or some other expert at the subject matter or skill, tells the employee how to do something.
2. The employee tries it.
3. The expert watches and gives feedback.
4. The employee tries it until he or she gets it right.

The above approach works best in tasks or jobs that include straightforward procedures or routines. As jobs and roles become more complex, employees often require more formal training.


Common Pitfalls in Employee Training
1. New managers and supervisors often underestimate the value of training.
2. Or, they perceive it as occurring only in classrooms.
3. Or, they assume that because an employee has attended a course, workshop or seminar, than he or she must have learned what they needed to know.
4. Or, they believe that good training can only occur from highly trained professionals.


Learn How to Plan Your Training
Supervisors and employees can accomplish highly effective training by following certain guidelines.

The following guidelines (along with additional advice and resources to fill out your training plan) are included in the Complete Guidelines to Design Your Training Plan at http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/gen_plan.htm

Determining Your Overall Goals in Training
1. Are there any time lines that you should consider in your plan?
2. Are you pursuing training and development in order to address a performance gap?
3. Or, is your plan to address a growth gap?
4. Or, is your plan to address an opportunity gap?
5. Get feedback from others
6. Should you conduct a self-assessment?
7. Is a list of competencies, job descriptions or job analysis available to help you identify your training and development goals?
8. Begin thinking about how much money you will need to fund your plan.
9. Write down your training goals.


Identifying Your Learning Objectives and Activities
1. What new areas of knowledge or skills are needed to reach the training goals. Each of these new areas is a learning objectives. Write down the learning objectives.
2. In what sequence should the learning objectives be attained?
a. Carefully consider -- When you have achieved all of your learning objectives, will you indeed have achieved all of your overall training goals?
b. What are the best learning activities (methods) for you to achieve your learning objectives? Do your learning activities include your ongoing reflections about your learning?
c. What observable results, or evidence of learning, will you produce from your learning activities that can be reviewed for verification of learning?
d. Who will verify that each of your learning objectives were reached?
3. Now that you know what activities that will be conducted, think again about any costs that will be needed, e.g., for materials, facilities, etc.
4. How will you handle any ongoing time and stress management issues while implementing your plan?


Developing Any Materials You May Need
1. Consider if you need to obtain, or start:
a. Enrolling in courses
b. Buying books
c. Scheduling time with experts
d. Getting a mentor
e. Scheduling time with your supervisor, etc.


Planning Implementation of Your Training Plan
1. During your training, how will you be sure that you understand the new information and materials?
2. Will your learning be engaging and enjoyable?
3. Are you sure that you'll receive the necessary ongoing feedback, coaching, mentoring, etc., during your training and development activities?
4. Where will you get necessary administrative support and materials?


Planning Evaluation of Your Training Plan and Experiences
1. Who's in charge of implementing and tracking your overall plan?
2. Consider having a local training expert review the plan.
3. Are approaches to evaluation included in all phases of your plan?
For example, are your methods being pretested before being applied? Do you understand the methods as they're being applied? Are regularly providing feedback about how well you understand the materials? How will the you (and your supervisor, if applicable) know if implementation of the plan achieves the training goals identified in the plan? Are there any plans for follow-up evaluation, including assessing your results several months after you completed your plan?


Budget Necessary Resources for Training
1. Consider costs of trainers, consultants, room rental, books, tuition, labor to pay the employee while attending training, etc.


Additional general resources about training and development

For additional and advanced information, see Employee Training Programs at http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/trn_prog/trn_prog.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Self-Directed Learning in the Workplace at http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/methods/slf_drct.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Basic Terms in Training and Development at http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/basics/terms.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Reasons and Benefits for Training and Development at http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/basics/reasons.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Basics to Know About Adult Learning at http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/trng_dev/basics/adlt_lrn.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Basic Requirements of Learners in Training and Development at http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/basics/learner.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Basic Requirements of Supervisors With Employees in Training and Development > at http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/basics/suprvsr.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Suggestions to Enrich Any Training and Development Plan at http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/gdlns.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Some Typical Ways of Learning at http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/methods/methods.htm#anchor931247
For additional and advanced information, see Some New Ways of Learning in the Workplace at http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/methods/methods.htm#anchor789424

Additional resources about designing training plans
For additional and advanced information, see Complete Guidelines to Design Your Training Plan at http://www.managementhelp.org/trng_dev/gen_plan.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Management Development at http://www.managementhelp.org/mgmt_dev/mgmt_dev.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Leadership Development at http://www.managementhelp.org/ldr_dev/ldr_dev.htm
For additional and advanced information, see Supervisoral Development at http://www.managementhelp.org/supr_dev/supr_dev.htm

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=== EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT ===
Setting Goals
New Managers and Supervisors Often Lack Perspective on Performance of Employees
One of the common problems that new managers and supervisors experience is no clear, strong sense whether their employees are really being effective or not. The first step toward solving this problem is to establish clear performance goals.

Some people have a strong negative reaction toward setting goals because they fear goals as "the law" that must be maintained and never broken. Some people fear they will not achieve the goals. Others have disdain for goals because goals seem to take the "heart" out their work.


Advantages of Goals
Despite the negative views that one can have about goals, they hold certain strong advantages in the workplace. They:
1. Provide clear direction to both supervisor and employee
2. Form a common frame of reference around which the supervisor and employee can effectively communicate
3. Clearly indicate success, and can facilitate strong sense of fulfillment for employee and supervisor
4. Help clarify the roles of the supervisor and employee.


Goals for Performance Gaps, Growth Gaps, Opportunity Gaps and Training Gaps
Goals can be established for a variety of reasons, for example, to overcome performance problems, qualitfy for future jobs and roles, take advantage of sudden opportunities that arise and/or give direction to training plans.

Performance gaps are identified during the employee performance management process. Ideally, performance gaps are addressed by performance improvement plans. In these plans, goals are established to improve performance, and may include, for example, increased effort on the part of the employee, support from the supervisor, and certain training and resources to assist the employee in their development. Dedicated employees can greatly appreciate having specific performance goals for them to achieve in order to keep their jobs, verify their competence to their supervisor and accomplish overall professional development.

Growth gaps are identified during career planning. Employees perceive certain areas of knowledge and skills that they would like to accomplish in order to qualify for certain future roles and positions. Employees often appreciate having clear-cut goals that mark what they need to do to advance in their careers.

Opportunity gaps are identified when a sudden opportunity arises for the employee. If the employee is highly interested in taking advantage of the opportunity, then he or she will appreciate knowing exactly what they need to accomplish (what goals they need to achieve) to grab the opportunity.

Training gaps are identified when hiring a new employee, during employee performance management or career planning. Gaps are usually in terms of areas of knowledge, skills or abilities. Training plans can be designed with clear-cut training goals to give direction to the employee and trainer.

Whatever the type of goal, it's critical that the employee have strong ownership and commitment to achieving the goal.


Goals Can Be Agreeable to Supervisors and Employees
These views can be addressed, largely by
a) ensuring that employees are strongly involved in identifying them,
b) goals are conveyed as guidelines and that they can be missed as long as there is clear explanation for missing the goals before they are missed, and
c) the goals are "SMARTER" (more on this below).

When setting goals with employees, strive to design and describe them to be "SMARTER". This acronym is described in this guide, in a subsection listed above, and stands for:
1. Specific
2. Measurable
3. Acceptable
4. Realistic
5. Timely
6. Extending capabilities
7. Rewarding

If goals seem insurmountable to the employee, then break goals down into smaller goals, or sub-goals or objectives. Each of these should be SMARTER, as well.

(For further explanation, see the above subsection " Goals and Objectives Should Be SMARTER" included in the above topic "Planning".)

For additional and advanced information, see Goal Setting with Employees at http://www.managementhelp.org/emp_perf/goal_set/goal_set.htm

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Supporting Employee Motivation
Clearing Up Common Myths About Employee Motivation
The topic of motivating employees is extremely important to managers and supervisors. Despite the important of the topic, several myths persist -- especially among new managers and supervisors. Before looking at what management can do to support the motivation of employees, it's important first to clear up these common myths.

1. Myth #1 -- "I can motivate people"
Not really -- they have to motivate themselves. You can't motivate people anymore than you can empower them. Employees have to motivate and empower themselves. However, you can set up an environment where they best motivate and empower themselves. The key is knowing how to set up the environment for each of your employees.

2. Myth #2 -- "Money is a good motivator"
Not really. Certain things like money, a nice office and job security can help people from becoming less motivated, but they usually don't help people to become more motivated. A key goal is to understand the motivations of each of your employees.

3. Myth #3 -- "Fear is a damn good motivator"
Fear is a great motivator -- for a very short time. That's why a lot of yelling from the boss won't seem to "light a spark under employees" for a very long time.

4. Myth #4 -- "I know what motivates me, so I know what motivates my employees"
Not really. Different people are motivated by different things. I may be greatly motivated by earning time away from my job to spend more time my family. You might be motivated much more by recognition of a job well done. People are motivated by the same things. Again, a key goal is to understand what motivates each of your employees.

5. Myth #5 -- "Increased job satisfaction means increased job performance"
Research shows this isn't necessarily true at all. Increased job satisfaction does not necessarily mean increased job performance. If the goals of the organization are not aligned with the goals of employees, then employees aren't effectively working toward the mission of the organization.

6. Myth #6 -- "I can't comprehend employee motivation -- it's a science"
Nah. Not true. There are some very basic steps you can take that will go a long way toward supporting your employees to motivate themselves toward increased performance in their jobs. (More about these steps is provided later on in this article.)


Basic Principles to Remember
1. Motivating employees starts with motivating yourself
It's amazing how, if you hate your job, it seems like everyone else does, too. If you are very stressed out, it seems like everyone else is, too. Enthusiasm is contagious. If you're enthusiastic about your job, it's much easier for others to be, too. Also, if you're doing a good job of taking care of yourself and your own job, you'll have much clearer perspective on how others are doing in theirs.

A great place to start learning about motivation is to start understanding your own motivations. The key to helping to motivate your employees is to understand what motivates them. So what motivates you? Consider, for example, time with family, recognition, a job well done, service, learning, etc. How is your job configured to support your own motivations? What can you do to better motivate yourself?

2. Always work to align goals of the organization with goals of employees
As mentioned above, employees can be all fired up about their work and be working very hard. However, if the results of their work don't contribute to the goals of the organization, then the organization is not any better off than if the employees were sitting on their hands -- maybe worse off! Therefore, it's critical that managers and supervisors know what they want from their employees. These preferences should be worded in terms of goals for the organization. Identifying the goals for the organization is usually done during strategic planning. Whatever steps you take to support the motivation of your employees (various steps are suggested below), ensure that employees have strong input to identifying their goals and that these goals are aligned with goals of the organization. (Goals should be worded to be "SMARTER". More about this later on below.)

3. Key to supporting the motivation of your employees is understanding what motivates each of them
Each person is motivated by different things. Whatever steps you take to support the motivation of your employees, they should first include finding out what it is that really motivates each of your employees. You can find this out by asking them, listening to them and observing them. (More about this later on below.)

4. Recognize that supporting employee motivation is a process, not a task
Organizations change all the time, as do people. Indeed, it is an ongoing process to sustain an environment where each employee can strongly motivate themselves. If you look at sustaining employee motivation as an ongoing process, then you'll be much more fulfilled and motivated yourself.

5. Support employee motivation by using organizational systems (for example, policies and procedures) -- don't just count on good intentions
Don't just count on cultivating strong interpersonal relationships with employees to help motivate them. The nature of these relationships can change greatly, for example, during times of stress. Instead, use reliable and comprehensive systems in the workplace to help motivate employees. For example, establish compensation systems, employee performance systems, organizational policies and procedures, etc., to support employee motivation. Also, establishing various systems and structures helps ensure clear understanding and equitable treatment of employees.


Steps You Can Take
The following specific steps can help you go a long way toward supporting your employees to motivate themselves in your organization.

1. Do more than read this article -- apply what you're reading here
This maxim is true when reading any management publication.

2. Briefly write down the motivational factors that sustain you and what you can do to sustain them
This little bit of "motivation planning" can give you strong perspective on how to think about supporting the motivations of your employees.

3. Make of list of three to five things that motivate each of your employees
Read the article How to Motivate Today's Worker (at http://edge.lowe.org/resource/document/htmldocs/6440.HTM). Notice the list of motivating factors in the section "Assessing Your Approach." Fill out the list yourself for each of your employees and then have each of your employees fill out the list for themselves. Compare your answers to theirs. Recognize the differences between your impression of what you think is important to them and what they think is important to them. Then meet with each of your employees to discuss what they think are the most important motivational factors to them. Lastly, take some time alone to write down how you will modify your approaches with each employee to ensure their motivational factors are being met. (NOTE: This may seem like a "soft, touchy-feely exercise" to you. If it does, then talk to a peer or your boss about it. Much of what's important in management is based very much on "soft, touchy-feely exercises". Learn to become more comfortable with them. The place to start is to recognize their importance.)

4. Work with each employee to ensure their motivational factors are taken into consideration in your reward systems
For example, their jobs might be redesigned to be more fulfilling. You might find more means to provide recognition, if that is important to them. You might develop a personnel policy that rewards employees with more family time, etc.

5. Have one-on-one meetings with each employee
Employees are motivated more by your care and concern for them than by your attention to them. Get to know your employees, their families, their favorite foods, names of their children, etc. This can sound manipulative -- and it will be if not done sincerely. However, even if you sincerely want to get to know each of your employees, it may not happen unless you intentionally set aside time to be with each of them.

6. Cultivate strong skills in delegation
Delegation includes conveying responsibility and authority to your employees so they can carry out certain tasks. However, you leave it up to your employees to decide how they will carry out the tasks. Skills in delegation can free up a great deal of time for managers and supervisors. It also allows employees to take a stronger role in their jobs, which usually means more fulfillment and motivation in their jobs, as well.

7. Reward it when you see it
A critical lesson for new managers and supervisors is to learn to focus on employee behaviors, not on employee personalities. Performance in the workplace should be based on behaviors toward goals, not on popularity of employees. You can get in a great deal of trouble (legally, morally and interpersonally) for focusing only on how you feel about your employees rather than on what you're seeing with your eyeballs.

8. Reward it soon after you see it
This helps to reinforce the notion that you highly prefer the behaviors that you're currently seeing from your employees. Often, the shorter the time between an employee's action and your reward for the action, the clearer it is to the employee that you highly prefer that action.

9. Implement at least the basic principles of performance management
Good performance management includes identifying goals, measures to indicate if the goals are being met or not, ongoing attention and feedback about measures toward the goals, and corrective actions to redirect activities back toward achieving the goals when necessary. Performance management can focus on organizations, groups, processes in the organization and employees.

10. Establish goals that are SMARTER
SMARTER goals are: specific, measurable, acceptable, realistic, timely, extending of capabilities, and rewarding to those involved.

11. Clearly convey how employee results contribute to organizational results
Employees often feel strong fulfillment from realizing that they're actually making a difference. This realization often requires clear communication about organizational goals, employee progress toward those goals and celebration when the goals are met.

12. Celebrate achievements
This critical step is often forgotten. New managers and supervisors are often focused on a getting "a lot done". This usually means identifying and solving problems. Experienced managers come to understand that acknowledging and celebrating a solution to a problem can be every bit as important as the solution itself. Without ongoing acknowledgement of success, employees become frustrated, skeptical and even cynical about efforts in the organization.

13. Let employees hear from their customers (internal or external)
Let employees hear customers proclaim the benefits of the efforts of the employee . For example, if the employee is working to keep internal computer systems running for other employees (internal customers) in the organization, then have other employees express their gratitude to the employee. If an employee is providing a product or service to external customers, then bring in a customer to express their appreciation to the employee.

14. Admit to yourself (and to an appropriate someone else) if you don't like an employee --
Managers and supervisors are people. It's not unusual to just not like someone who works for you. That someone could, for example, look like an uncle you don't like. In this case, admit to yourself that you don't like the employee. Then talk to someone else who is appropriate to hear about your distaste for the employee, for example, a peer, your boss, your spouse, etc. Indicate to the appropriate person that you want to explore what it is that you don't like about the employee and would like to come to a clearer perception of how you can accomplish a positive working relationship with the employee. It often helps a great deal just to talk out loud about how you feel and get someone else's opinion about the situation. As noted above, if you continue to focus on what you see about employee performance, you'll go a long way toward ensuring that your treatment of employees remains fair and equitable.


For additional and advanced information, see

Benefits and Compensation at http://www.managementhelp.org/pay_ben/pay_ben.htm
Coaching at http://www.managementhelp.org/guiding/coaching/coaching.htm
Counseling (addressing performance problems) at http://www.managementhelp.org/guiding/counslng/counslng.htm
Delegating at http://www.managementhelp.org/guiding/delegate/delegate.htm
Employee Performance Management at http://www.managementhelp.org/emp_perf/emp_perf.htm
Employee Wellness Programs at http://www.managementhelp.org/emp_well/emp_well.htm
Establishing Employee Performance Goals at http://www.managementhelp.org/emp_perf/emp_perf.htm#anchor1972621
Goals and Objectives Should Be SMARTER at http://www.managementhelp.org/plan_dec/gen_plan/gen_plan.htm#anchor1384873
Mentoring at http://www.managementhelp.org/guiding/mentrng/mentrng.htm
Morale (Boosting) at http://www.managementhelp.org/guiding/morale/morale.htm
Motivating (additional articles about supporting employee motivation) at http://www.managementhelp.org/guiding/motivate/motivate.htm
Performance Management (basics concepts) at http://www.managementhelp.org/perf_mng/perf_mng.htm
Policies (Personnel) at http://www.managementhelp.org/policies/policies/policies.
Power and Influence at http://www.managementhelp.org/guiding/influenc/influenc.htm
Rewarding Performance at http://www.managementhelp.org/emp_perf/rewards/rewards.htm

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Observing and Giving Feedback
McGill and Beatty (in "Action learning: A practitioner’s guide", London: Kogan Page, 1994, p. 159-163) provide useful suggestions about sharing effective feedback:

1. Clarity -- Be clear about what you want to say.

2. Emphasize the positive -- This isn’t being collusive in the person's dilemma.

3. Be specific -- Avoid general comments and clarify pronouns such as “it,” “that,” etc.

4. Focus on behavior rather than the person.

5. Refer to behavior that can be changed.

6. Be descriptive rather than evaluative.

7. Own the feedback -- Use ‘I’ statements.

8. Generalizations -- Notice “all,” “never,” “always,” etc., and ask to get more specificity -- often these words are arbitrary limits on behavior.

9. Be very careful with advice -- People rarely struggle with an issue because of the lack of some specific piece of information; often, the best help is helping the person to come to a better understanding of their issue, how it developed, and how they can identify actions to address the issue more effectively.

For additional and advanced information, see Giving and Receiving Feedback at http://www.managementhelp.org/commskls/feedback/feedback.htm

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Addressing Performance Issues
(Note that if your organization's policies about performance management indicate a specific procedure for handling performance issues, that procedure should be followed very carefully. Otherwise, a court may interpret your official policies to be modified by how you actually handled a performance issue and you may lose protection from your related policies in court.)

1. Note that performance issues should always be based on behaviors that you see, not on characteristics of the employee's personality

2. Convey performance issues to employees when you see first see the issues!
Don't wait until the performance review! Worse yet, don't ignore the behaviors in case they "go away."

3. When you first convey a performance issue to an employee, say what you noticed and would like to see instead
Be specific about what you saw that you consider to be a performance problem. Ask the employee for feedback. Ask the employee if there's any special training or more resources they need to do their job. Explore if the job is configured so that most people would probably fail, and so the job needs to be redesigned. Tell them that you want the behavior to improve. If they react strongly and claim they will quit, give them a day to think it over. In any case, remind them that you support them in their role.

4. (Consider special circumstances:
You can usually fire someone if they committed certain gross acts, such as theft, blatant insubordination, a major impropriety, e.g., telling information to competitors or spreading confidential information about customers, etc. However, if there is poor performance or chronic absenteeism because of potential verified alcoholism or depression, it's best to consult an expert to deal with this situation.)

5. Make notes about the first meeting and its results, and keep it in a file for yourself
This note may come in handy later on if the performance problem persists. (In the case of a corporation, you might mention the situation to your board. The board will likely be a precious and objective asset to dealing with this situation, especially if things with the employee get worse.)

6. If the problem occurs again over the next month or two, immediately issue them a written warning
In the memo, clearly specify what you saw, mention the previous meeting and its date, say the behaviors have not improved, warn them that if this occurs again over some period (e.g., the next month), they will be promptly terminated. Meet with them to provide them the memo. If you are convinced that the employee is trying hard, but can't improve, consider placing him or her elsewhere in the organization. Attempt to have this meeting on other than on a Friday. Otherwise, employees are left to ruminate about the situation without ready access to you for at least three days. (In the case of corporations, update the board.)

7. On the third occurrence, consider firing the employee. (See below.)

For additional and advanced information, see Addressing Performance Problems at http://www.managementhelp.org/emp_perf/prf_issu/prf_issu.htm

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Conducting Performance Appraisals/Reviews
Yearly performance reviews are critical. Organization's are hard pressed to find good reasons why they can't dedicate an hour-long meeting at least once a year to ensure the mutual needs of the employee and organization are being met. Performance reviews help supervisors feel more honest in their relationships with their subordinates and feel better about themselves in their supervisoral roles. Subordinates are assured clear understanding of what's expected from them, their own personal strengths and areas for development and a solid sense of their relationship with their supervisor. Avoiding performance issues ultimately decreases morale, decreases credibility of management, decreases the organization's overall effectiveness and wastes more of management's time. Conduct the following activities.

1. Design a legally valid performance review process; consider these legal requirements of the performance review process:
Patricia King, in her book, Performance Planning and Appraisal, states that the law requires that performance appraisals be: job-related and valid; based on a thorough analysis of the job; standardized for all employees; not biased against any race, color, sex, religion, or nationality; and performed by people who have adequate knowledge of the person or job. Be sure to build in the process, a route for recourse if an employee feels he or she has been dealt with unfairly in an appraisal process, e.g., that the employee can go to his or her supervisor's supervisor. The process should be clearly described in a personnel policy.

2. Design a standard form for performance appraisals
and include the name of the employee, date the performance form was completed, dates specifying the time interval over which the employee is being evaluated, performance dimensions (include responsibilities from the job description, any assigned goals from the strategic plan, along with needed skills, such as communications, administration, etc.), a rating system (e.g., poor, average, good, excellent), space for commentary for each dimension, a final section for overall commentary, a final section for action plans to address improvements, and lines for signatures of the supervisor and employee. Signatures may either specify that the employee accepts the appraisal or has seen it, depending on wording on the form.

3. Schedule the first performance review for six months after the employee starts employment
Schedule another six months later, and then every year on the employee's anniversary date.

4. Initiate the performance review
Tell the employee that you're initiating a scheduled performance review. Remind them of what's involved in the process. Schedule a meeting about two weeks out.

5. Have the employee suggest any updates to the job description and provide written input to the appraisal
(Note that by now, employees should have received the job descriptions and goals well in advance of the review, i.e., a year before. The employee should also be familiar with the performance appraisal procedure and form.) Have them record their input to the appraisal concurrent to the your recording yours. Have them record their input on their own sheets (their feedback will be combined on the official form later on in the process). You and the employee can exchange each of your written feedback in the upcoming review meeting.

6. Record your input to the appraisal -- always reference the job description and associated formal goals for basis of review
Be sure you are familiar with the job requirements and have sufficient contact with the employee to be making valid judgments. Don't comment on the employee's race, sex, religion, nationality, or a handicap or veteran status. Record major accomplishments, exhibited strengths and weaknesses according to the dimensions on the appraisal form, and suggest actions and training or development to improve performance. Use examples of behaviors wherever you can in the appraisal to help avoid counting on hearsay. Always address behaviors, not characteristics of personalities. The best way to follow this guideline is to consider what you saw with your eyes. Be sure to address only the behaviors of that employee, rather than behaviors of other employees.

7. Hold the performance appraisal meeting
State the meeting's goals of exchanging feedback and coming to action plans, where necessary. In the meeting, let the employee speak first and give their input. Respond with your own input. Then discuss areas where you disagree. Attempt to avoid defensiveness; admitting how you feel at the present time, helps a great deal. Discuss behaviors, not personalities. Avoid final terms such as "always," "never," etc. Encourage participation and be supportive. Come to terms on actions, where possible. Try to end the meeting on a positive note.

8. Update and finalize the performance appraisal form
Add agreed-to commentary on to the form. Note that if the employee wants to add attach written input to the final form, he or she should be able to do so. The supervisor signs the form and asks the employee to sign it. The form and its action plans are reviewed every few months, usually during one-on-one meetings with the employee.

9. Note that if the supervisor has been doing a good job supervising, then nothing should be surprising to the employee during the appraisal
Any performance issues should have been conveyed when they occurred, so nothing should be a surprise in the review meeting.

For additional and advanced information, see Employee Performance Appraisals/Reviews at http://www.managementhelp.org/emp_perf/emp_perf.htm#anchor1974259

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Firing Employees

1. You should consider firing the employee only if
you have a) given the employee clear indication of what you originally expected from him or her (via a written job description previously provided to the him or her); b) have clearly written personnel policies which specify conditions and directions about firing employees and the employee initialized a copy of the policy handbook to verify that he or she had read the policies; c) warned the employee in successive and dated memos which clearly described degrading performance over a specified time despite your specific and recorded offers of assistance and any training (the number of memos depends on the nature of the problem, but should be no more than three or four); and d) you clearly observe the employee still having the performance problem. (Note that if the employee is being fired within a probationary period specified in your personnel policies, you may not have to meet all of the above conditions.)

2. Take a day or so to consider what you are about to do.
Consult with members of your board (in the case of corporations).

3. If you still decide to fire the employee, do so promptly
both for your credibility with other employees and so as not begin procrastinating about this rather painful, upcoming event.

4. Write a letter of termination to the employee
As with the previous letters of warning, be clear about the observed behaviors, when you saw them, earlier warnings and their consequences, what you did in response, and the consequence that must now be enacted according to your policies.

5. Tell the computer system administrator to change the employee's password
and assert that this action should be done promptly and in complete confidence.

6. Meet with the employee. Provide them the letter. Explain how the termination will occur, including when, what they must do, what you request from them and when. Ask for any keys. Give them a half hour or so to remove personal items (you may choose to monitor them during this removal, depending on the nature of the grounds for dismissal). Consider changing the door locks to the facilities. Change the passwords on phone systems, if applicable.

7. As with other meetings, make notes of what was said and exchanged
Keep them in your records.

For additional and advanced information, see Firing Employees at http://www.managementhelp.org/emp_perf/prf_issu/firing/firing.htm

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=== === PERSONNEL POLICIES === ===
Developing Personnel Policies
Need for Personnel Policies
From review of the above personnel management information, it's clear that there are numerous considerations and potential areas for litigation when dealing with personnel issues. There are numerous rules and regulations which regulate the nature of the relationship between an employee and his or her organization, e.g., about affirmative action, managing personnel files, employee retirement, rights of privacy, discrimination and harassment, wrongful termination, etc. Consequently, it's better to have thought out these potentially controversial situations before they occur and establish guidelines by which they might or will be addressed. These general guidelines are called policies. Specific activities resulting from the guidelines are often called procedures.


Developing Personnel Policies
Each organization should carefully consider what policies it requires and how they should worded. Many organizations begin developing their personnel policies by reviewing policies from other organizations. This is fine as long the organization carefully reviews each policy, modifies them according to the nature and needs of the organization and has all policies approved by the board (in the case of corporations).

When developing policies, always consult a lawyer who's well versed in federal, state and local laws regarding employment practices, e.g., the Employee Law -- Civil Rights Act of 1964, Americans with Disabilities Act of 1992, and Occupational Safety and Health Acts. Personnel policies may need to be governed to by union rules or other contractual agreements.

Note that the online information referenced from these Web pages and the associated examples should be considered as guidance, rather than as policies to be adopted as is for any organization.


Training on Policies
Note that if management's behaviors do not conform to the personnel policies, courts will consider the related policies to be superseded by the behaviors. Therefore, it's critical that management have basic understanding of the major points made in each personnel policy.

Consider setting aside a half day per year for employees to review the policies and procedures to ensure they are up-to-date. Any recommended changes should be discussed with and approved by the board (in the case of corporations).

In addition, each employee should have a manual that includes all personnel policies. (See below.)


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Developing an Employee Manual
Document all intended policies and procedures and collect them in a policies and procedures manual. Having all policies and procedures in a manual facilitates training about them to all employees. All employees should have read the manual to understand and accept its contents. They should sign a form indicating so, and provide the signed form to the organization's administrator.

All supervisors should be trained about the policies and procedures. A large number of suits brought against organizations is because, although the organizations had clear policies, supervisors did not enact the policies because they did not understand them. Note that courts may consider policies and procedures as superseded by the actual behaviors displayed by supervisors.

The board (in the case of corporations) should authorize all policies in the manual and every employee should receive a copy of the manual.

Each policy should include wording to the effect that the policies are for general guidance in the relationships between employees and the organization, the board (in the case of corporations) has authorized the policy, that policies can be changed at any time and that the policies do not constitute a contract between the organization and the employee. Consider the following wording on the cover of your policies manual:

"Nothing contained in or implied by this manual creates or shall be deemed to create or constitute a contractual obligation to employees on the part (of the organization). The policies, procedures and guidelines contained in this manual are subject to change at any time, do not confer any obligation (on the part of the organization) and do not create any right to employment on the part (of the organization)."

For additional and advanced information, see Employee Manuals / Handbooks at http://www.managementhelp.org/policies/handbook/handbook.htm

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