Formative Assessment: Assessment during instruction which is meant to provide feedback to students, teachers or both. Formative assessment is meant to help students monitor their own learning and usually does not affect their grade.
Inter-Rater Reliability: The level of measurement precision associated with subjectively scored tests. If two people following the same scoring key and instructions might disagree on the correct number of points to assign, then the scoring system does not have perfect inter-rater reliability.
Linear Equating: A process of equating which involves specifying the desired mean and standard deviation of the final distribution ahead of time and using those values to directly calculate new scores.
NCEs see Normal Curve Equivalents
Norm-referenced Scoring: A process of scoring that evaluates a test score in relation to the test scores of a norm group. A student´s score depends on how well she performs on the test in comparison to how well her peers perform on the test.
Normal Curve: A bell-shaped distribution of scores that is assumed to be universal for all large, uniform populations regardless of what is being tested, as long as the scale used allows scores to vary. Properties of the normal curve serve as the basis for scoring virtually all norm-referenced tests.
Normal Curve Equivalents (also NCEs): A system of ranking test scores by dividing the normal distribution of scores into 99 equal intervals. Scores that fall within the 50th NCE represent average performance, while scores in the 1st and 99th NCEs represent the lowest and highest performing groups, respectively.
Stanines: A system of ranking test scores by dividing the normal distribution of scores into nine equal intervals, each half a standard deviation wide. Scores that fall within the 5th stanine represent average scores; while scores in the 1st and the 9th stanines represent the highest and lowest performing groups, respectively.
Subjective Scoring: Scoring systems which require some expertise or experience. If two people following the same scoring key and instructions might disagree on the correct number of points to assign, then the scoring is subjective.
Z Scores: Standardized scores with a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one. Z scores are calculated by subtracting the mean of the test from an individual raw test score and then dividing this difference by the standard deviation of the test. Z scores are the most common type of standardized score.